Anatomy Atlases(tm) : A digital library of anatomy information

Home | About | FAQ | Reviews | Search

Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Listing of the Cardiovascular System by Region: Arteries: Persistent Embryologic Arteries

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Listing of the Cardiovascular System By Region

Persistent Embryologic Arteries (Hyaloid, Hypoglossal, Stapedial, and Trigeminal)

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Occasionally, arteries that are found during embryologic development, that usually disappear, persist.

The primitive trigeminal artery is the most common persistent carotid-basilar anastomic channel observed in adult life and has been reported as an incidental finding in 0.1 to 0.6% of consecutive cerebral angiograms or autopsy cases.

See also text and references given for the Ophthalmic, Hyaloid, and Lacrymal arteries and for the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar, the Posterior inferior Cerebellar arteries, the internal carotid and the vertebral arteries.

In the limbs see Median (Persistent) and Sciatic (Ischiatic).


Image 149, Image 154

Hypoglossal and Stapedia:

Image 232


See Image 232


Anderson, P.A. and F.K. Sondheimer. (1976) Rare carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses with notes on the differentation between proatlantal and hypoglossal arteries. Neuroradiology 11:113-118.

Badal, -. (1880) Tumeurs congénitales des globes ocular. Persistance de l'artère hyaloïd, chez malade. Gazette Hebdomadaire des Sciences Medicales de Bordeaux. 2:728-730.

Carbonin, C., Benedetti, A., Curri, D. and L. Rubini. (1976) A case of persistent hypoglossal aretery. Neurochirurgia 19:231-236.

Chambers, A.A. and R. Lukin. (1975) Trigeminal artery connection to the posterior inferior cerebellar arteries. Neuroradiology :121-123.

Claiborne, J.H. (1898) A case of supernumerary artery of the optic disc projecting inro the vitreous humor. Med. Record 54:423-424.

Cobb, S.R., Heishima, G.B., Mehringer, C.M., Grinnell, V.S. and H.W. Primbram. (1983) Persistent trigeminal artery variant: carotid-anterior inferior cerebellar artery anastomosis. Surg. Neurol. 19:263-266.

Dilenge, D. and M. Heon. (1974) The internal carotid artery. In Newton, T.H. and D.G. Potts, Eds. Radiology of the Skull and Brain - Angiology. Mosby, St Louis.

Fields, W.S. (1968) The significance of persistent trigeminal artery. Radiology 91:1096-1101.

Fields, W.S. (1980) Persistent hypoglossal artery in association with advanced atherosclerosis. Neurosurg. Rev. 3:37-41.

Harwood-Nash, D.C. and C.R. Fitz. (1976) Neuroradiology in infant and children. Mosby, St Louis.

Haughton, V.M., Rosenbaum, A.E. and J. Pearce. (1978) Internal carotid artery origins of the inferior cerebellar arteries. AJR: Am. J. Roentgenology 130:1191-1192.

Higano, S., Uemura, K., Ogawa, T. et al. (1987) Persistent trigeminal artery variant - A case report of five cases and some embryological considerations. Rhinsho Hoshasen 32:263-268.

Ito, J., Takeda, N., Suzuki, Y., Takeuchi, S., Osugi, S. and Y. Yoshida. (1980) Anomalous origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries from the internal carotid artery. Neuroradiology 19:105-108.

Katsuragi, M., Inoue, Y., Ueda, J., et al. (1980) An anomalous branch of the internal carotid artery supplying vessels of the posterior fossa directly. No To Shinkel 32:515-521.

Lasjaunais, P. and A. Berenstein. (1987) Surgical Neuroangiography. Vol. 1. Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Lie, T.A. (1972) Congenital malformations of the carotid and vertebral arterial systems, including the persistent anastomoses. In Vinken, P.F. and G.W. Bruyn, Eds. Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Vol. 12. North Holland, Amsterdam.

Little, W.S. (1881-1882) Remarks on persistent hyaloid artery - Two cases presented for observation. Philadelphia Medical Times 12:299-301.

Matsuda, I., Handa, J., Handa, H. and Y. Yonekawa. (1979) Carotid-Superior cerebellar anastomosis associated with cerebral aneurysms and angiomatous malformation. Nippon Geka Hokan 48:535-541.

Morita, A., Fukushima, T., Miyazaki, S. Shimizu,T. and M. Atsuchi. (1989) Tic douloureux caused by primitive trigeminal artery or its variant. J. Neurosurg. 70:415-419.

Mracek, Z., Janda, J. and I. Koranda. (1982) Perzistujici arteria trigeminalis primitiva. Klinická a angiografická studie s anatomickou verifikací. Ceskoslovenská Neurologie a Neurochirurgie 45:345-351.

Nutik, S. and D. Dilenge. (1976) Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis. J. Neurosurg. 44:378-382.

Padget, D.H. (1948) The development of the cranial arteries in the human embryo. Contrib. Embryol. 32:205-262.

v. Reuss, A. (1886) Zur Kasuistik der angeborenen Anomalien des Auges. Wiener Medizinische Press, Organ für praktische Aerzte 27:265-268.

Shintani, S., Kuzuhara, S. and Y. Toyokura. (1990) MR imaging of persistent primitive trigeminal artery. Neuroradiology 32:79.

Siqueira, M., Piske, R., Ono, M. and R. Marino, Jr. (1993) Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery. AJNR 14:1229-1235.

Teal, J.S., Rumbaugh, C.L., Bergeron, R.T., et al. (1972) Persistent carotid-superior cerebellar artery anastomosis: a variant of persistent trigeminal artery. Radiology 103:335-341.

Tomsick, T.A., Lukin, R.R. and A.A. Chambers. (1979) Persistent trigeminal artery unusual associated abnormalities. Neuroradialogy 17:253-257.

Ulrich, R. (1882) 3 Fälle von typischer Retinitis pigmentosa mit rudimentärer Arteria hyaloidea perseverans. Klinische Monatsblatter für Augenheilkunde 20:240-241.

Zehender, W. (1863) Persistirende arteria hyaloidea. Klinsiche Monatsblatter für Augenheilkunde 1863:349-351.

Section Top |Title Page

Home | About Us | FAQ | Reviews | Contact Us | Search

Anatomy Atlases is curated by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. and Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D.

Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.

All contents copyright © 1995-2018 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.

"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.

Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.

Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.

The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.