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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Glossary of Terms

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System

Glossary of Terms

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Their origin and definition related to the Cardiovascular System.

The following abbreviations are used: Ar., Arabic; AS Anglo-Saxon; G., Greek; and L., Latin.

A| B| C| D| E| F| G| H| I| J| K | L| M| N | O| P| Q | R| S| T| U| V| W | X | Y | Z

A

Abdomen
(L. abdomen).
Abdominal
(L. abdominalis,pertaining to the abdomen).
Aberrans
(L. ab,from + errare,to wander). Wandering or deviating from the usual course.
Accessory
(L. accedere,to approach). Supplementary or affording aid to another similar and generally more important vessel. Important exceptions are accessory hepatic, renal, and splenic arteries, which are essential, tissue-sustaining, and arteries without anastomic connections.
Acromial
(G. akron,extremity + omos,shoulder). Pertaining to the acromion, the point of the shoulder, e.g., acromial artery.
Aorta
(L. from G. aorte,from aeiro,to lift up).
Apex
(L. apex,summit or tip). Referred originally to the small swollen tuft on top of the cap of the chief priest, thus by extension, the top or summit of any part. Apex of the heart.
Artery
(G. arteria,from aer,air + terein, to keep). The arteries were believed to contain air.
Auricular
(L. auricula,little ear). Pertaining to the auricles of the heart or to the little finger.
Azygos
(G. a+ zygon,yoke or pair). Unpaired, e.g., vena azygos.

B

Brachial
(L. brachium,G. brachion, arm). Pertaining to the arm. Brachial blood vessels.
Brachium.
See Brachial.
Bulbus
(L. bulbus,G. bolbos,a rounded mass or enlargement), e.g., bulbus arteriosus.

C

Cardinal
(L. cardo,hinge). Of primary or preeminent importance. Cardinal vein.
Carotid
(G. karos,deep sleep, from the word kar or head, from where sleep is induced). The ancients called the arteries of the neck carotid because they believed that when they were pressed hard, the animal became sleepy.
Celiac
(G. koilia,belly). Pertaining to the celiac trunk.
Cephalic
(G. kephale,head). Pertaining the head.
Cervical
(L. cervix,neck), e.g., cervical artery.
Circumflex
(L. circumflexus,bent around). Curved like a bow.
Cleido-
(G. kleis,boll, hook). Pertaining to the clavicle.
Collateral
(L. com,together + latus, side). Small side branch.
Comites
(L. comes,companion). Companion veins.
Conus
(G. konos,a cone).
Coronary
(L. corona,G. korone,encircling in the manner of a crown). Arteries of the heart; also formerly left and right gastric arteries and veins.
Cystic
(G. kystis,bladder). Pertaining to the gallbladder.

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D

Digital
(L. digitus,a finger or toe). Pertaining to a finger or toe.
Ductus
(L. ducere,to lead or conduct), e.g., ductus arteriosus.
Duodenal
(L. duedeni,twelve). Pertaining to the duodenum. The duodenum was so named because it is "twelve fingerbreadths" in length.
Dural
(L. dura,hard). Pertaining to the dura mater.

E

Epigastric
(G. epi,on + gaster, belly). Pertaining to the epigastrium.
Epiploic
(G. epiploon,omentum). Pertaining to the omentum.

F

Facial
(L. facies,face), e.g., facial vein.
Femoral
(L. femur,thigh). Pertaining to the femur or thigh.

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G

Gastric
(G. gaster,belly or stomach), e.g., gastric artery.
Gluteal
(G.gloutos,buttock). Pertaining to the buttocks.
Gonadal
(L. gonas,G. gone, seed). Pertaining to the gonad.

H

Heart
(AS. heorte,originally from Sanskrit hrid, source of heat).
Hemorrhoidal
(G. haima,blood + rhoia,flow). Vessels likely to bleed. Applied to arteries and veins in the region of the rectum and anus.
Hepatic
(G. hepatos,liver). Pertaining to the liver.
Humeral
(L. humerus,shoulder). Pertaining to the humerus.
Hypogastric
(G. hypo,under + gaster,stomach). Internal iliac artery.

I

Iliac
(L. ilium,flank, soft part), e.g., common iliac artery.
Ima
(L. lowest), e.g., thyroidea ima. The lowest thyroid artery.
Indicis
(L. indicare,to point out). Pertaining to the indicator or the first finger of the hand.
Intercostal
(L. inter,between + costarib). Situated between the ribs.
Interosseus
(L. iner,between + os, bone). Situated between bones.

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J

Jugular
(L. jugulum,throat, from jugum,a yoke, because the yoke is carried on the neck). Pertaining to the throat or neck.

L

Lien-
(L. lien,G. splen,spleen). Pertaining to the spleen.
Lingual
(L. lingua,tongue). Pertaining to the tongue.
Lumbar
(L. lumbus,loin), e.g., lumbar artery.

M

Median
(L. medius,middle), e.g., median basilar artery.
Mesenteric
(G. meso,middle + enteron, intestine). Pertaining to the mesentery.
Metacarpal
(G. meta,after, beyond + karpos, wrist). Pertaining to the part of the hand between the wrist and fingers.

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O

Obturator
(L. obturare,to occlude), e.g., obturator vein.
Occipital
(L. ob,before or against + caput, head). Pertaining to the occiput.
Omphalo-
(G. omphalos,the navel). Pertaining to the umbilicus.
Ovarian
(L. ovarium,egg receptacle). Pertaining to the ovary.

P

Palmar
(L. palma,palm of the hand), e.g., superficial palmer artery.
Pancreatic
(G. pan,all + kreas,flesh). Pertaining to the pancreas.
Peroneal
(G. perone,brooch, anything pointed for piercing or pinning, fibula). Blood vessels of the leg.
Pollicis
(L. pollex,thumb, from polleo, strong). The thumb is so named because it is stronger than the other fingers.
Popliteal
(L. poples,ham, back of the knee). Pertaining to the posterior surface of the knee. It is possible that this area had a special name because the Roman soldier wore a short skirt or kilt with the knees exposed, and a favorite stroke in fighting was a cut behind the knee to "hamstring" the opponent.
Portal
(L. porta,gate). An entrance or gateway. The portal vein carries nutrients to the liver.
Princeps
(L. princeps,principal chief).
Profunda
(L. profundus,deep).

R

Radial
(L. radius,stroke of a wheel). The radial artery is on the lateral side of the forearm.
Radialis
See Radial.
Rectal
(L. rectum,straight). Pertaining to the rectum.
Renal
(L. ren,kidney). Pertaining to the sacrum.

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S

Saphenous
(Ar. safin,standing). Saphenous vein.
Scapular
(L. scapula,shoulder), e.g., transverse scapular vein.
Septal
(L. septum,dividing wall). Pertaining to a septum in the heart.
Spermatic
(G. sperma,seed), e.g., spermatic vein.
Splenic
(L. splen,spleen), e.g., splenic artery.
Sternum
(G. sternon,breast or chest).
Subclavian
(L. sub,under + clavis,key). Blood vessels under the clavicle.

T

Testicular
(L. testiculus,from testis, witness), e.g., testicular artery.
Thoracic
(G. thorax,chest). Pertaining to the chest.
Thyroid
(G. thyreoiedes,from thyreos, oblong shield + eidos, form). Resembling a shield.
Tibial
(L. tibia,pipe or flute). Pertaining to the tibia.

U

Ulnar
(L. ulna,elbow, arm). Pertaining to the ulna.
Uterine
(L. uterus,womb). Pertaining to the uterus.

V

Vaginal
(L. vagina,sheath). Pertaining to the vagina.
Valves
(L. valvae,folding doors). Heart valves.
Vein
(L. vena,vein, from venire, to come to). So named because the blood comes to the heart through these vessels.
Vertebral
(L. vertebra,vertebra), e.g., vertebral vein.
Vesical(
L. vesica,, bladder). Pertaining to the urinary bladder.

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