Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Based on a study of 102 bodies.
A. Diagram showing origin of upper polar (accessory) artery (UPA) from the aorta.
B. Diagram of mode of origin of lower polar (accessory) artery (LPA).
C. Lower polar artery arising from the iliac artery.
D. Upper, most important feature is origin of accessory lower polar artery from main renal on left side. Lower, posterior view of right kidney of upper figure showing superior, middle, and inferior types of retropelvic arteries.
E. Upper, chief feature is presence of an inferior polar artery on the right side. The lower of two main renal arteries crosses the posterior aspect of the pelvis. Lower, posterior view of the upper figure, showing two retropelvic veins on each side crossing middle of back of pelvis. Note accessory artery crossing posterior aspect of pelvis.
F. Upper, anterior view of right kidney showing accessory superior polar artery arising from renal and also division of main renal artery into equal-sized pre- and retropelvic branches. Lower, posterior view of the upper figure showing fan-like distribution of retropelvic artery as in E.
G. Front view showing on both sides a superior polar artery arising from the main renal artery. On the left side is seen a typical example of bifid pelvis.
H. Retropelvic artery arising from renal and crossing, as in E, the middle of posterior aspect of pelvis. Note lower polar accessory artery arising directly from the aorta.
Note: Polar and accessory renal arteries are strictly end arteries serving exclusively specific regions of the kidney.
See continuing illustrations in this series.
redrawn from Eisendrath, 1920
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