Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
O. Upper, anterior view. Lower, posterior view of right kidney showing main renal vein crossing posterior aspect of pelvis.
P. Right kidney. Upper, accessory upper polar artery arising close to aorta from one of two main renal arteries. Note also accessory lower polar artery arising from aorta close to common iliac. Similar condition in left kidney but superior polar artery arises from one of two main renals close to kidney. Lower, posterior view of upper figure, showing a large renal vein and artery entering kidney back of pelvis on left side, and a smaller retropelvic vein directly from the vena cava.
Q. Upper, front view showing superior polar artery arising from main renal on right side and from aorta on left side. Lower, posterior view of upper figure, showing a fairly large renal vein crossing middle of back of pelvis.
R. Representation of various types of retropelvic veins: Upper left, division of the main renal vein into pre- and retropelvic branches of equal size; upper right, main renal vein crosses posterior aspect of pelvis to reach kidney; lower left, accessory renal vein to lower pole of kidney; Lower right main renal vein divides into two branches, the larger of which is retropelvic. There is also an accessory renal vein directly from aorta.
redrawn from Eisendrath, 1920
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