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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Introduction

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System


Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Among the most important considerations in the study of the vascular system is its significant variations. Although many of these cause no disturbance in the functions of the body, they may be of great importance to the surgeon. One group of variations represents persistent fetal forms of circulation. Another group represents individual variations, some of which may be explained developmentally or by a study of usual anastomoses. Variations in "viable individuals" are, in well-studied cases, statistically predictable; their over-all total or number is finite. Hence, it may be possible to catalog and reference all of them as we have attempted here. Variations may be rare or so common as to make it difficult, or even unwise or unprofitable, to try to determine an "anatomic norm" or the Maker's design.

Image of passage

This series of illustrated encyclopedias of human anatomic variation are offered as a celebration of the magnificant effort, achievements and discoveries by human anatomists world wide--for without these scientists there would be no medicine as we know it today.

Important Notice

The data reported below is the effort, work and property of the cited authors and journals (and publishers). It is annotated or often quoted with little or no change in original wording, with little or no interpretation or reinterpretation of the original data.

The present authors have collected these data from as many sources as possible, world-wide, from over 883 journals to demonstrate that variations in viable individuals are finite in number and found repeatedly, world-wide, over hundreds of years. Hence, they may be catalogued for all those who need to know this very important variational anatomy.

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