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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax: Facial Artery

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax

Facial Artery

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


The facial artery is frequently rudimentary. It may terminate as a submental artery, i.e., not reaching the face, or as a labial or alar nasi (lateral nasal) artery and not as the angular (43% of cases studied). In its absence, it may be replaced by the nasal branch of the ophthalmic artery at the medial side of the orbit, by the transverse facial or by the maxillary artery.

The facial, when larger than usual may replace the frontal branches of the ophthalmic or the nasal artery, on the other hand the submental branch of the facial may arise from the lingual.

The ascending palatine branch of the facial artery may arise from the external carotid.

Unusual branches of the facial include an ascending pharyngeal, superior laryngeal, tonsillar, sternocleidomastoid, maxillary, or sublingual. The facial artery may replace the lingual artery and supply the sublingual gland.

The facial arteries inferior and superior labial branches are sometimes poorly developed or absent, in which case they are replaced by the contralateral vessel, which is usually enlarged.

The facial artery may arise by a common trunk with the lingual.

Occasionally it arises above its usual position, then descends beneath the angle of the jaw to assume its ordinary course. The arch thus formed, above the submandibular gland may extend for some distance beneath the ramus of the jaw, lying between the internal pterygoid and styloglossus muscles.

The Arteria Anguli Nasi is frequently small and is variable in its distribution. It is usually the terminal branch of the facial artery.

Image 145

Transverse

See Image 145

Ascending Palatine

Image 424


References

Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Co. New York.

Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Dall'Acqua, U. and A. Meneghetti (1905) Ricerche di anatomia comparata sulle arteria della faccia. Arch. Ital. Anat. Embriol. 4:161-182, 306-365.

Dall'Acqua, U. and A. Meneghetti. (1906) Recherches d'anatomie comparée sur les artères de la face. Arch. Ital. Biol. 46:302-304.

Dall'Acqua, U. and A.Meneghetti. (1907) Recherches d'anatomie comparée sur les artères de la face. Arch. Ital. Biol. 47:484-486.

Demarquay, -. (1845) Anomalies Artèrielles. Bull. et Mém. de la Soc. Anatomique de Paris 1845:41.

Howe, L. (1880) Unusual position of the arteria anguli nasi. The Buffalo Med. and Surg. J. 20:495-498.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traite d'Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed. G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Nizankowski, C. (1972) Seltenes Fall eines gemeinsamen Stammes der Schilddrüzenzungengesichtsschlagader beim Menschen. Anat. Anz. 132:530-534.

Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital Anomalies of the Arteries and Veins of the Human Body with Bibliography. The University Studies of the University of Nebraska, Lincoln 22:1-106.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed. Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

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