Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
The facial, when larger than usual may replace the frontal branches of the ophthalmic or the nasal artery, on the other hand the submental branch of the facial may arise from the lingual.
The ascending palatine branch of the facial artery may arise from the external carotid.
Unusual branches of the facial include an ascending pharyngeal, superior laryngeal, tonsillar, sternocleidomastoid, maxillary, or sublingual. The facial artery may replace the lingual artery and supply the sublingual gland.
The facial arteries inferior and superior labial branches are sometimes poorly developed or absent, in which case they are replaced by the contralateral vessel, which is usually enlarged.
The facial artery may arise by a common trunk with the lingual.
Occasionally it arises above its usual position, then descends beneath the angle of the jaw to assume its ordinary course. The arch thus formed, above the submandibular gland may extend for some distance beneath the ramus of the jaw, lying between the internal pterygoid and styloglossus muscles.
The Arteria Anguli Nasi is frequently small and is variable in its distribution. It is usually the terminal branch of the facial artery.
See Image 145
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