Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Thorax
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Esophageal branches are found in 20% of humans, on the right side, arising from the fifth posterior intercostal artery.
Occasionally the second intercostal is formed by a branch that arises from the first aortic intercostal and runs upward to the second space over the neck of the third rib; a similar condition may be found in the lower arteries, two or more intercostal spaces being supplied from a common stem.
Finally, the right and left arteries of one or all of the intercostal pairs may arise from a common stem, which arise from the posterior median line of the aorta.
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Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.
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