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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax: Lingual Artery

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax

Lingual Artery

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

This artery often arises from the common carotid, with the facial and less frequently with the superior thyroid. The lingual, facial and superior thyroid may arise from a common trunk. It may also arise in common with the facial artery (Faller, 10-20%) or with the superior thyroid or both of these with the maxillary artery (Haller, 14%; Quain, 20%; Livini, 25%; Dall'Acqua, 20%; Poynter, 15%) or with the ascending pharyngeal (Livini, 0.5%).

The lingual sometimes branches from the facial. It may also give rise to both the facial and the maxillary, and to the submental, ascending palatine, superior laryngeal, or accessory superior thyroid.

Its hyoid branch may be absent, and the hyoid branch varies in size inversely with the hyoid branch of the superior thyroid artery.

The lingual is occasionally replaced, totally or partially, by a branch of the maxillary or of the submental branch of the facial.

The lingual artery sometimes pierces the origin of the hyoglossus rather than passing beneath the posterior border of the muscle.

The sublingual branch may arise from the facial and then pierce the mylohyoid muscle.

The lingual artery may provide the following unusual branches: the superior laryngeal, the submental, and the ascending palatine arteries.

Ascending Palatine

Image 424


Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed. The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh., (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Faller, A. (1946) Variation in site and form of branching of the carotid artery. Schweiz. Med. Wochenschrift 76:1156-1158.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen, Von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Huber, G.C., Ed. (1930) Piersol's Human Anatomy, 9th ed., L.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.

Kadyi, H. (1881) Abnormer Verlauf der Art. lingualis. Medizinische Jahrbücher 1881:44-45.

Kren, O. (1931-32) über eine seltene Anomalie der Arteria lingualis nebst einer kurzen Zusammenfassung ihrer häufigsten topographischen Varietaten. Anat. Anz. 73:107-110.

Mériel, -. et -. Florence. (1903) Anomalies de l'artère linguale au point de vue opératoire. Bull. et Mém. de la Soc. Anatomique de Paris 5:573-575.

Morestin, H. (1894) Anomalie de l'artère linguale. Bull. et Mém. de la Soc. Anatomique de Paris. 8:680-681.

Nizankowski, C. (1972) Seltener Fall eines gemeinsamen Stammes der Schilddrüzenzungengesichtsschlagader beim Menschen (Truncus Thyrolinguofacialis). Anat. Anz. 132:530-534.

Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital Anomalies of the Arteries and Veins of the Human Body with Bibliography. The University Studies of The University of Nebraska, Lincoln 22:1-106.

Rouvière, H. et H. Vallois. (1908) Note sur le mode de termiaison de l'artère sublinguale chez l'homme. (Terminaison de la branche maxillaire de la sublinguale) Bibliographie Anatomique 18:106-109.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce, Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th Ed., Longmans, Green and Co., London.

Shepherd, F.J. (1889) Abnormal lingual artery. Medical News, Philadelphia 1889:305.

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