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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Pelvis: Lateral Sacral Artery

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Pelvis

Lateral Sacral Artery

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Usually the second branch of the posterior division of the internal iliac, these vessels show great irregularity in development, according to Poynter. They represent two separate vessels, a superior and an inferior vessel. They are frequently associated with the superior gluteal artery in early development, a condition that is reflected in adult statistics (in 92% of cases, Parsons). Poynter found the lateral sacral single in 55%, doubled in 45%, and arising from the hypogastric (internal iliac) in 22%.

These vessels from both sides may arise in common. Superior branches are sometime absent and are replaced by branches from the common iliac, internal iliac, iliolumbar, or sciatic arteries.

When inferior branches are absent, they are sometimes replaced by branches from the middle rectal, gluteal, and sciatic arteries.

The lateral sacral may provide the inferior vesical and middle rectal arteries.

Observations of 53 subjects were reported by Parsons and Keith for the Committee of Collective Investigation of the Anatomical Society of Great Britian and Ireland, 1895-96. In 53 observations, 27 (50.9%) the two arteries of one side arose by a common trunk; in 25 (47.2%) there were two distinct arteries on one side, while in one case three arteries were present. Of the 27 cases in which the single trunk was present, it came from the posterior division in 25 (92.6%), from the internal iliac in 2 (7.4%). Of the 25 cases in which there were two arteries, they both came from the posterior division 17 times (68%), both from the internal iliac, the lower from the posterior division. In 9 cases, as has already been recorded, one or both the lateral sacrals came off in common with the iliolumbar.

Image 243, Image 473 Image 486, Image 494


Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Chalier, A. (1912) Anomalies des arteres renales et du bassinet. J. Urol., Paris 1:103-104.

Chalot, U. (1884) De la determination des points d'emergence of artères fessière, ischiatique et honteuse interne pour la ligature de ces vaisseaux. Gazette Hebdomadaires des Sciences Médicales de Montpellier. 1884 (No.33), (Aout 16.) :388-389.

Curtis, A.H., Anson, B.J., Ashley, F.L. and T.Jones. (1942) The blood vessels of the female pelvis in relation to gynecological surgery. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 75:421-423.

Lipshutz, B. (1918) A composite study of the hypogastric artery and its branches. Ann. Surg. 67:584-608.

Pác, L., Hamplová, M. and O. Pelcová. (1977) An atypical case of arising of some parietal branches of the arteria iliaca interna in man. Anat. Anz. 141:450-454.

Parsons, F. G. and A. Keith (1897) Sixth Annual Report of the Committee of Collective Investigation of the Anatomical Society of Great Britian and Ireland, 1895-96. The mode of origin of the branches of the internal iliac artery. J. Anat. Physiol., London 31:31-44.

Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital anomalies of the arteries and veins of the human body of man with bibliography. University Studies of the University of Nebraska 22:1-106.

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