Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Abdomen
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
It often provides, from each side, a large branch (the lowest lumbar artery), which courses backwards onto the fifth lumbar vertebra (see illustration from Tiedemann).
The middle sacral artery may also provide an "accessory" renal or, a middle rectal artery.
The middle sacral artery may also provide a renal artery in cases of pelvic kidney.
According to Quain, the middle sacral artery represents, "the caudal prolongation of the aorta of mammals." In addition, Quain states that the arteries lateral branches correspond to intercostal and lumbar arteries.
Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.
Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. Von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.
Latarjet, A. Testut's Traite d"Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed. G. Doin & Cie, Paris.
Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital anomalies of the arteries and veins of the human body. University Studies of the University of Nebraska. 22:1-106.
Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce, Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green and Co., London.
Winslow, R. (1883) A study of the malformations, variations, and anomalies of the circulatory apparatus in man. Annals of Anatomy and Surgery 7:94.
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