Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Arteries: Head, Neck, and Thorax
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
When it arises from the subclavian, it is usually behind or lateral to scalenus anterior.
When it is absent, it is compensated for by branches from the dorsal scapular, superficial cervical, costocervical trunk, or the distal or third part of the subclavian or even the axillary artery.
If the artery arises medial to scalenus anterior it is, without exception, a branch of the thyrocervical trunk. It may arise from the dorsal scapular (possibly as high as 20%). In addition, it sometimes arises from the inferior thyroid, internal thoracic, costocervical trunk, or the first part of the subclavian.
According to Röhlich the transverse cervical artery arose in common with the suprascapular artery from the thyrocervical trunk. Right side, 41 cases (45.5%); Left side, 33 cases (39.2%); total, 74 cases (42.6%); in Men, 49 cases (44.5%); in Women, 25 cases (39%).
The transverse cervical arose from the inferior thyroid, which arose from a common stem with the suprascapular and the internal thoracic arteries. Right side, 2 cases (2.2%); Left side, 6 cases (7.1%); total, 8 cases (4.5%); in Men, 4 cases (3.6%); in Women, 4 cases (6.2%).
The transverse cervical arose from the thyrocervical trunk. Right side, 41 cases (45.5%); Left side, 36 cases (42.8%); total 77 cases (44.2%); in Men, 44 cases (41.8%); in Women 31 cases (48.4%).
The transverse cervical arose from the inferior thyroid, which arose from a common stem with the ascending cervical and suprascapular arteries. Right side, 3 cases (3.3%); Left side, 5 cases (5.9%); total, 8 cases (4.5%); in Men, 6 cases (4.5%); in Women, 2 cases (3.1%).
The transverse cervical arose from the thyrocervical trunk from which the ascending cervical and internal thoracic arteries arose from a common stem. Left side , 1 case (1.1%); total 1 case (0.5%); in Men, left side, 1 case (1.9%); total 1 case, (0.9%).
The transverse cervical artery was absent. Right side, 4 cases (4.4%); Left side, 5 cases (5.9%); total 9 cases (5.1%); in Men, 7 cases (6.3%); in Women, 2 cases (3.1%)
See also Thyrocervical trunk.
Image 107, Image 122, Image 306, Image 315
Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company.
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Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.
Daseler, E.H. and B.J. Anson. (1959) Surgical anatomy of the subclavian artery and its branches. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 108:149-174.
DeGaris, C.F. (1924) Patterns of branching of the subclavian artery in White and Negro stocks. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 7:95-107.
Faller, A. (1952) Statistische untersuchungen über Ursprung und Kaliber der Arteria transversa colli beim Menschen. Untersuchung an 134 Halshälften. Arch. Kreisl.- Forsch. 18:161-167.
Huelke, D.F. (1958) A study of the transverse cervical and dorsal scapular arteries. Anat. Rec. 132:233-245.
Huelke, D.F. (1959) Variation in the origins of the branches of the axillary artery. Anat. Rec. 135: 33-41.
Huelke, D.F. (1962) The dorsal scapular artery. A proposed term for the artery to the rhomboids. Anat. Rec. 142:57-61.
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Lischka, M.F., Krammer, E.B., Rath, T. and M. Riedl. (1982) The thyrocervical trunk: Configuration and variability reinvestigated. Anat. Embryol. 163:389-401.
Nizankowski, C. Noczynski, L. and E. Suder. (1982) Varibility of the origin of ramifications of the subclavian artery in humans (studies on the Polish population). Folia Morphol., Warsaw 41:281-294.
Phillips, Jr., L.G. (1989) The transverse cervical artery: New origins and pathways. Clinical Anatomy 2 (2):93-102.
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Read, W.T. and M.Trotter. (1941) The origins of transverse cervical and transverse scapular arteries in American Whites and Negroes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 28:239-247.
Röhlich, K. (1934-35) über die Arteria transversa colli des Menschen. Anat. Anz. 79:37-52.
Röhlich, K. (1940-41) über den Truncus threocervicalis des Menschen. Anat Anz. 90:129-148.
Saadeh, F.A (1979) The suprascapular artery: Case report of an unusual origin. Anat. Anz. 145:83-86.
Thomson, A. (1891) Second annual report of the Committee of Collective Investigation of the Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland for the year 1890-1891. J. Anat. Physiol. 26:77-80.
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