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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax: Accessory Azygos Vein

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax

Accessory Azygos Vein

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


In 40% of cases, the hemiazygos is continuous above with the accessory hemiazygos vein. The accessory azygos vein is joined above with the left superior (supreme) intercostal vein in 57% of humans.

References

Andreassi, G. (1941-42) über die Verbindung zwischen dem oberen und unteren Hohlvenensystem in Hinblick auf die laterale und mediale Wurzel der Vena azygos und der Vena hemiazygos. Anat. Anz. 92:240-245.

Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Bastien, -. (1859) Anomalie de la veine azygos droite. Soc. Biol., Comptes Rendus des Séances et mémoires. 11:204.

Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Collins, E.W. (1874) Accessory pulmonary lobe of the vena azygos. Proceedings of the Pathological Society of Dublin 6:40-41.

Davis, F.A.G. (1935-36) Unusual course of vena hemiazygos. J. Anat. 70:321.

Gruber, W. (1864) über einen Fall von Einmündung der Vena hemiazyga in das Atrium dextrum cordis beim Menschen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen. Med. 1864:729-740.

Gruber, W. (1866) Weitere Falle von einmündung der Vena hemiazyga in das Atrium dextrum cordis beim Menschen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen. Med. 1866:224-230.

Hafferi, A. (1923-24) Ein Fall von abnormen Verlauf des Ductus thoracicus und der V. hemiazygos. Anat. Anz. 57:373-378.

Klob, J. (1859) Einige Venen-Anomalien. Zeitschrift der Kaiserl. Köngl. Gesellschaft der Aerzte zu Wien 1859 (no.47):737-738.

Lindsay, H.C. (1925) An abnormal vena hemiazygos. J. Anat. 59:438.

Morton, W.R.M. (1948) Pre-aortic drainage of the hemiazygos veins. Report of two cases. Anat. Rec. 101:187-191.

Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital anomalies of the arteries and veins of the human body with bibliography. The University Studies of the University of Nebraska. 22:1-106.

Taruffi, C. (1880) Sulle anomalie delle vene azigos ed emiazygos. Mem. Accad. Sci. Istituto di Bologna. S. 4, 2:675-681.

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