Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Cooper (1832) and Gruber (1862) found that an innominate vein passed through the thymus gland in about 2% of their subjects.
The brachiocephalic vessels may cross over the thymus gland.
It is not unusual for these veins to receive cervical and / or accessory cervical veins.
It is not extrordinary that bronchial veins may be tributaries of the vv. anonymae (innominate veins).
They may pass behind the aorta.
The right and left veins occasionally open into the right atrium separately
Unusual tributaries include the thyroidea ima, internal thoracic, accessory subclavian, and supreme intercostal.
When an accessory vertebral artery is present, it arises from the venous plexus on the vertebral artery, descends through the seven transverse foramina to reach the brachiocephalic vein.
Oblique (of Marshall)
Image 46, Image 201
Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.
Chiene, J. (1868) On a case in which the innominate veins opened separately into the right auricle, and in which the intestines were misplaced; with remarks on the development of the parts. J. Anat. Physiol. 2:13-18.
Daser, P. (1902) über eine seltene Lage - Anomalie der Vena anonyma sinistra. Anat. Anz. 20:535-555.
Friedman, S.M. (1945) Report of two unusual venous anomalies. (Left postrenal inferior vena cava; post-aortic left innominate vein). Anat. Rec. 92:71-76.
Gruber, W. (1876) Verlauf der Vena anonyma sinistra vor der Thymus. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 66:462-463.
Gruber, W. (1880) Verlauf der Vena anonyma sinistra vor der Thymusdruse. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 82:475.
Hart-Smith, -. (1895) Abnormal left innominate vein. J. Anat. Physiol. 29:xxiv-xxvi.
Kretschny, F. (1877) Verschliessung der Vena anonyma dextra durch eine Struma substernalis. Wein. Med. Wochenschr. 27:3-6.
Krishnamurti, A. (1964) Double left innominate vein in a Chinese cadaver. J. Anat. Soc. India 13:100-102.
Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital anomalies of the arteries and veins of the human body with bibliography. The University Studies of the University of Nebraska 22:1-106.
Troyer, J.R. (1961) A multiple anomaly of the human heart and great veins. Anat. Rec. 139:509-513.
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