Anatomy Atlases(tm) : A digital library of anatomy information

Home | About | FAQ | Reviews | Search

Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax: Brachiocephalic Veins

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax

Brachiocephalic Veins

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Quain found them extending well-up into the neck on the left side.

Cooper (1832) and Gruber (1862) found that an innominate vein passed through the thymus gland in about 2% of their subjects.

The brachiocephalic vessels may cross over the thymus gland.

It is not unusual for these veins to receive cervical and / or accessory cervical veins.

It is not extrordinary that bronchial veins may be tributaries of the vv. anonymae (innominate veins).

They may pass behind the aorta.

The right and left veins occasionally open into the right atrium separately

Unusual tributaries include the thyroidea ima, internal thoracic, accessory subclavian, and supreme intercostal.

When an accessory vertebral artery is present, it arises from the venous plexus on the vertebral artery, descends through the seven transverse foramina to reach the brachiocephalic vein.

Oblique (of Marshall)

Image 194

Thyroidea Ima

Image 46, Image 201


Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Chiene, J. (1868) On a case in which the innominate veins opened separately into the right auricle, and in which the intestines were misplaced; with remarks on the development of the parts. J. Anat. Physiol. 2:13-18.

Daser, P. (1902) über eine seltene Lage - Anomalie der Vena anonyma sinistra. Anat. Anz. 20:535-555.

Friedman, S.M. (1945) Report of two unusual venous anomalies. (Left postrenal inferior vena cava; post-aortic left innominate vein). Anat. Rec. 92:71-76.

Gruber, W. (1876) Verlauf der Vena anonyma sinistra vor der Thymus. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 66:462-463.

Gruber, W. (1880) Verlauf der Vena anonyma sinistra vor der Thymusdruse. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 82:475.

Hart-Smith, -. (1895) Abnormal left innominate vein. J. Anat. Physiol. 29:xxiv-xxvi.

Kretschny, F. (1877) Verschliessung der Vena anonyma dextra durch eine Struma substernalis. Wein. Med. Wochenschr. 27:3-6.

Krishnamurti, A. (1964) Double left innominate vein in a Chinese cadaver. J. Anat. Soc. India 13:100-102.

Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital anomalies of the arteries and veins of the human body with bibliography. The University Studies of the University of Nebraska 22:1-106.

Troyer, J.R. (1961) A multiple anomaly of the human heart and great veins. Anat. Rec. 139:509-513.

Section Top | Title Page

Home | About Us | FAQ | Reviews | Contact Us | Search

Anatomy Atlases is curated by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. and Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D.

Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.

All contents copyright © 1995-2018 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.

"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.

Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.

Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.

The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.