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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Abdomen: Hepatic Veins

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Abdomen

Hepatic Veins

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

The usual number of hepatic veins is three. The right hepatic vein may pass through the caval diaphragmatic opening before joining the vena cava. One of the hepatic veins has been shown draining directly into the right ventricle.

A case has been described in which an accessory vein, arising from three roots, from the right lobe of the liver coursed adjacent to the inferior vena cava to enter the right ventricle. The vessel contained valves.

A common hepatic may be formed that empties into the right atrium.

The umbilical vein may persist in adults.


Banner, R.L. and R.D. Brasfield. (1958) Surgical anatomy of the hepatic veins. Cancer 1:22-23.

Benigni, E. (1905) Persistenza della vena ombellicale nell adulto. Gazzetta degli Ospedali e delle Cliniche 25:894-895.

Bergman, R. A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Doehner, G.A. (1968) The hepatic venous system. Its normal roentgen anatomy. Its pathologic roentgen anatomy. Radiology 90:1119-1131.

Guntz, M. (1959) Les veines sus-hépatiques. Anatomie et radio-anatomie. Trav. Lab. Anat. Faculty Med. Alger. 1959.

Hardy, K.J. (1972) The hepatic veins. Aust. NZ J. Surg. 42:1.

Kowalski, E. and J. Pawlaczyk. (1969) Venous blood vessels of rare shape in the liver. Folia Morphol., Warsaw 28:497-501.

Lander, H.H., Lyman, R.Y. and B.J. Anson. (1941) An anatomical consideration of the structure in the hepatic pedicle. A study of 100 consecutive cadavers. Q. Bull. Northwestern University Medical School 15:103-109.

Laux, G. and P.E. Rapp (1953) Le dispositif veineux du lobe de Spigel. Assoc. Anatomistes, Comptes Rendus Assoc. Anatomistes 40:264-271.

Masselot, R. et J. Leborgne. (1978) Anatomical study of the hepatic veins. Anatomia Clinica 1:109-125.

Segall, H. (1923) The blood and bile channels of the liver with special reference to the compensatory arterial circulation of the liver in its relation to surgical ligation of the hepatic artery. Report of a case of arteriosclerotic aneurism of the gastroduodenal artery. Surg,. Gynecol. Obstet. 37:152-178.

Shepherd, F.J. (1882) On some anatomical variations: Common iliac arteries. Annals of Anatomy and Surgery. 6;172.

Sledzinski, Z. and T. Tyzkiewicz. (1975) Hepatic veins of the right part of the liver in man. Folia Morphol., Warsaw 34:315-322.

Zientarski, B. (1982) Topography of hepatic veins in man. Folia Morphol., Warsaw 41:419-428.

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