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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Pelvis: Common, External, and Internal Iliac Veins

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Pelvis

Common, External, and Internal Iliac Veins

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Either common iliac vein may be doubled in part or throughout its length.

One of the veins may be absent, in which case the external and internal veins join the opposite common iliac to form the vena cava.

The right and left internal iliac veins occasionally unite and open as a common trunk at the confluence of the right and left external iliac veins to form the vena cava.

The middle sacral trunk may divide, and one branch may open into the right common iliac vein and the other into the left.

The common iliacs occasionally receive an accessory renal vein or even the entire renal drainage.

A connection between the portal and right common iliac has been reported.

The internal iliac vein may form an annulus around the internal iliac artery.

The internal iliac vein may receive an unusual vessel representing a confluence of the internal pudendal, obturator, gluteal, and sciatic veins.

The external iliac vein may be doubled or lie lateral to the external iliac artery.

The external iliac may receive a gonadal or obturator vein.

Iliac veins


References

Ancel, P. (1902) Sur l'existence anormale chez l'homme d'une disposition veineuse propre a certains mammiféres. Bibliographie Anatomique 1902:159-163.

Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

Brigidi, V. (1888) Di una larga comunicazione fra la vena ombellicale e la vena iliaca destra. Sperimentale XLI: 337-343.

Broca, -.(1852) Les deux veines iliaques primitives. Bull. et Mém. de la Soc. Anatomique de Paris 1852:474-475.

Champneys, F. (1872) Communication between the external iliac and portal vein. J. Anat. Physiol. 6:417-419.

Delitzin, S.B. (1901) Ein Fall von Inselbildung an der Vena iliaca externa dextra. Internat. Monatsschr. Anat. Physiol. 19:355-358.

Gillette, P. (1869) Recherches anatomiques sur les veines de la vessie et sur les plexus veineux intra-pelviens. J. de l'anatomie et de la Physiol. Normales et Pathologiques

Giacomini, -. (1873) Sopra di un'ampia comunicaziuone tra la vene porta e le vene iliache destre. Giorn. della Accad. di Med. di Torino 1873:584-620

Gruber, W. (1872) Bildung der Vena cava inferior durch Zusammenfluss von 3 Stämmen, und Bildung von Inseln zwischen der Vena iliaca externa und interna der linken Seite. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 54:190.

Gruber, W. (1881) In Bildungshemmung begründetes, anscheinend bis über den 1. Lendenwirbel verlängertes und mit einem Ramus communicans vor dem 5 Lendenwirbel versehenes Auftreten der Venae iliacae communis. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 86:493-495.

Kuhlenbeck, H. (1930) Teilweise erhaltene linke Vena supracardinalis, Fensterbildung im Bereiche der rechten Vena iliaca communis und akzessorische Nierengefässe bei einem erwachsenen Menschen. Anat. Anz. 70:117-122.

Menière, -. (1826) Observations relatives á une anastomose remarquable du système veineux gènèral avec le système veineux abdominal. Archives Gènèrales de Mèdecine 10:381-388.

Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital anomalies of the arteries and veins of the human body with bibliography. The University Studies of the University of Nebraska. 22:1-106.

Walsham, W.J. (1880) The common iliac veins running on each side of the aorta as high as the renal before uniting to form the inferior vena cava. St. Bartholomews Hospital Reports 16:97-98.

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