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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Pelvis: Common, External, and Internal Iliac Veins

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Pelvis

Common, External, and Internal Iliac Veins

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Either common iliac vein may be doubled in part or throughout its length.

One of the veins may be absent, in which case the external and internal veins join the opposite common iliac to form the vena cava.

The right and left internal iliac veins occasionally unite and open as a common trunk at the confluence of the right and left external iliac veins to form the vena cava.

The middle sacral trunk may divide, and one branch may open into the right common iliac vein and the other into the left.

The common iliacs occasionally receive an accessory renal vein or even the entire renal drainage.

A connection between the portal and right common iliac has been reported.

The internal iliac vein may form an annulus around the internal iliac artery.

The internal iliac vein may receive an unusual vessel representing a confluence of the internal pudendal, obturator, gluteal, and sciatic veins.

The external iliac vein may be doubled or lie lateral to the external iliac artery.

The external iliac may receive a gonadal or obturator vein.

Iliac veins


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Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Munich.

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Gruber, W. (1881) In Bildungshemmung begründetes, anscheinend bis über den 1. Lendenwirbel verlängertes und mit einem Ramus communicans vor dem 5 Lendenwirbel versehenes Auftreten der Venae iliacae communis. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 86:493-495.

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Walsham, W.J. (1880) The common iliac veins running on each side of the aorta as high as the renal before uniting to form the inferior vena cava. St. Bartholomews Hospital Reports 16:97-98.

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