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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax: Cerebral Dural Sinuses

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus II: Cardiovascular System: Veins: Head, Neck, and Thorax

Cerebral Dural Sinuses and Veins

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Confluences of Sinuses
The confluences of the venous sinuses of the dura mater are variable. The superior sagittal and straight sinuses may drain into a common opening, or they may bifurcate before joining the transverse sinuses. The straight sinus occasionally bifurcates and joins one of the transverse sinuses. The superior sagittal sinus may enter one of the transverse sinuses.

A 'typical' confluence of the superior sagittal, straight, and two transverse sinuses was found in four of 50 cases in one study and in two of 42 cases in another study. In 11 of 42 cases, the superior sagittal sinus joined a transverse sinus. In nine cases, it joined the right transverse sinus; in two other cases, it joined the left transverse sinus. In these 11 cases, the straight sinus bifurcated into right and left limbs, each of which opened into the corresponding transverse sinus.

In the remaining 29 cases, the superior sagittal sinus also bifurcated so that it too, as well as the straight sinus, opened into the transverse sinus of the corresponding side.

See Image 109, See Image 378, Image 379, Image 380

absence of

See Image 110, See Image 378

Transverse Sinus
The confluence or horizontal segment of the transverse is sometimes absent, as is, on occasion, the left transverse sinus. The transverse sinus sometimes communicates via an aberrant vein with the cavernous sinus or ophthalmic vein.

Image 109, Image 110, Image 379

Superior Sagittal
The superior sagittal sometimes exists as two separate parallel channels because of a median dural partition. It is also sometimes absent.

See Images 109, 110, 378

Image 513

Petrosal
A middle petrosal sinus might be present. The superior petrosal sinus occasionally communicates via an aberrant vein with the superior ophthalmic vein.

See Images 110 and 378

Tentorial
The tentorial might be absent. It sometimes receives a vein via the foramen rotundum, and sometimes has unusual tributaries such as the occipital sinus and an accessory common internal cerebral vein.

See Images 110 and 378

Lateral Sinus

Image 123

Occipital Sinus

Image 393

Sigmoid Sinus

See Image 123

Straight Sinus
The straight sinus may be doubled or tripled. In 56 human cadavers, Magden found the straught sinus in 26.7% of cadavers to be doubled, being either median in position (one superior to the other) (17.8%) or paramedian (both lying on side of the midline at the junction of the falx cerebri with tentorium cerebelli (8.9%). In two cases (3.5%) the straight sinus was triple, being either median in position or paramedian.

See Image 109, Image 387

Cavernous Sinus
This sinus might be absent. It sometimes receives a vein via the foramen rotundum.

See Images 110 and 378

Ophthalmo-Petrosus Sinus


References

Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Baló, J. (1950) The dural venous sinuses. Anat. Rec. 106:319-325.

Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation: Catalog, Atlas and World Literature. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore and Baltimore.

Bisaria, K.K. (1985) Anatomic variations of venous sinuses in the region of the torcular Herophili. J. Neurosurg. (Chicago) 62:90-95.

Browning, H. (1953) The confluence of dural venous sinuses. Am. J. Anat. 92:307-329.

Calori, L. (1880) Di un inversione splancnica generale nell'uomo accompagnata do alcuni notabili del capo con esso lei convenienti e da estrance anomalie. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Istituto di Bologna S.4., 2:597-622.

Campbell, E.H. (1933) The cavernous sinus. Anatomical and clinical considerations. Annales of Oto. Rhinol. Laryngol. 42:51-63.

Chiriac, V., Frasin, G., Chiriac, R. and W. Zillmann. (1972) Varietät des Sinus durae matris der oberen aboralen Gruppe. Anat. Anz. 130:526-527.

Coates, A.E. (1933-34) A note on the superior petrosal sinus and its relation to the sensory root of the trigeminal nerve. J. Anat. 68:428.

Delmas, A. et H. Kowsarian. (1951) Lacunes veineuses de la tente du cervelet. Assoc. Anatomistes, Comptes Rendus 38:382-387.

Delmas, A. et B. Pertuiset. (1949) Les veines du cortex Cérébral distribution générale, variations types veineux de distribution. Comptes Rendus de l'Association des Anatomistes, Nancy Association des Anatomistes. 36:185-194.

Delmas, A. et B. Pertuiset. (1949) Les veines du cortex cérébral. 2) Topographic régionale. Comptes Rendus de L'Association des Anatomistes. Nancy Association des Anatomistes 36:194-20

Dora, F. and T. Zileli (1980) Common variatins of the lateral and occipital sinuses at the confluens sinuum. Neuroradiology (Berlin) 20:23-27.

Special reference (SR) Hahn, R. (1914) Arch. Ital. Otol. 25:203.

Hayner, J.C. (1949) Variations of the torcular Herophili and transverse sinuses. Anat. Rec. 103:542.

Hyrtl, -. (1862) Der sinus ophthalmo-petrosus. Wien. Med. Wochenschrift No. 19, 12:290-291.

Kalbag, R.M. and A.L. Woolf. (1967) Cerebral Venous Thrombosis. Oxford Press, London and New York.

Labbé, C. (1883) Anomalies des sinus de la dure-mère. Dévelopment de ces sinus. Considérations sur la suppléance reciproque de ces canaux veineaux dans les cas d'absence de l'un d'eux description de quelque sinus peu connus. Arch. Physiol. S. 3., 1:1-27.

Mannu, A. (1907) Il confluente dei seni della dura madre, le sue variazione e il suo significato. Internationale Monatsschrift für Anatomie und Physiologie 24:303-395.

Mannu, A. (1908) Il confluente dei seni della dura madre, le sue variazione e il suo significato. Internationale Monatsschrift fürAnatomie und Physiologie, Leipzig 24:304-397.

Nikolic, V. and V. Rudez. (1966) Variations of the upper knee of the sigmoid sinus. Lijecnicki Vjesnik (Medical Journal) 88(4):381-388.

Poynter, C.W.M. (1922) Congenital Anomalies of the arteries and veins of the human body with bibliography. The University Studies of the University of Nebraska 22:1-106.

Saxena, R.C., Beg, M.A.Q., and A.C. Das. (1973) Double straight sinus. Report of six cases. J. Neurosurg. (Chicago) 39:540-572.

Saxena, R.C., Beg, M.A.Q. and A.C. Das. (1974) The straight sinus. J. Neurosurg. 41:724-727.

Streeter, G.L. (1915) The development of the venous sinuses of the duramater in the human embryo. Am. J. Anat. (Philadelphia) 18:145-178.

Theile, -. cited by Streit.

Williams, Jr., H.L. (1930) Apparent unilateral absence of cranial venous sinuses on the right. Arch. Otolaryngol. 12:339.

Williams, Jr., H.L. and O.E. Hallberg. (1941) Congenital absence of cranial venous sinuses noted at operation. Arch. Otolaryngol. 33:78.

Waltner, J.G. (1944) Anatomic variations of the lateral and sigmoid sinuses. Archives of Otolaryngology 39:307-312.

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