Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: F
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Variations of flexor carpi ulnaris, reported by Macalister, follow:
The epitrochleoanconeus (epitrochleoolecranonis or anconeus sextus [Gruber]) is a rare, small muscle closely associated with flexor carpi ulnaris. It arises from the posterior surface of the medial epicondyle of the humerus and is inserted onto the olecranon process. It is superficial to the ulnar nerve, from which it receives its innervation, and takes the place of a fibrous arch of deep fascia, usually found in the same location. The muscle may compromise the function of the ulnar nerve. The muscle has been reported present in about 25% of bodies. It is consistently found in amphibians, reptiles, and some primates.
Syn.: m. Ulnaris Internus, Ellenbogenbeuger der Hand, Innerer Ellenbogenbeuger, Innerer Ellenbogenmuskel, Cubital Anterieur (Cruveilhier).
Redrawn and modified from an illustration in Toldt, C.
In "An Atlas of Human Anatomy for Students and Physicians".
Doubled Flexor Carpi Ulnaris.
Calori, L. (1868) Delle anomalie più importanti di ossa, vasi, nervi, e muscoli occorse nell'ultimo biennio fascendo anatomia del corpo umano. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Istituto di Bologna S. 2. 8:417-482.
Curnow, J. (1873) Notes of some irregularities in muscles and nerves. J. Anat. Physiol. 7:304-309.
Galton, J.C. (1875) On the epitrochleo-anconeus or anconeus sextus (Gruber). J. Anat. Physiol. 9:169-175.
Gruber, W. (1881) Ein musculus ulnaris brevis beim Menschen. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 86:15-19.
Hirasawa, Y., Sawamura, H., and K. Sakakida. (1979) Entrapment neuropathy due to bilateral epitrochleoanconeus muscles. A case report. J. Hand Surg. 4:181-184.
Jansen, J.H. (1850) Waarnemingen van anomale spieren. Nederlandsch Lancet 1850:431-437.
Macalister, A. (1875) Additional observations on muscular anomalies in human anatomy (third series), with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-134.
Reid, R.W. and S. Taylor. (1879) Anatomical variations. Reports. St. Thomas's Hospital 9:47.
Toldt, C. (1928) An Atlas of Human Anatomy for Students and Physicians, 2nd ed. Vol. 1. The Macmillian Co., New York.
Wood, J. (1866) Variations in human myology observed during the winter session of 1865-66 at King's College, London. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 15:229-244.
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