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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: G: Gluteus Maximus

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: G

Gluteus Maximus

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Variations are rare. The most medial fibers may separate to insert on the lateral lip of the linea alba. The muscle may receive an additional fasciculus of origin from the lumbar aponeurosis or ischial tuberosity. This fasciculus may be independent (ischiofemoral muscle).

A distinct slip (coccygeofemoral) at the lower border of gluteus maximus, arises from the coccyx and attaches to the femur, is also found and represents a caudal head. The fibers arising from the sacrotuberous ligament and the margin of the sacrum are normally separated from the superficial part of gluteus maximus by a layer of areolar tissue.

A very rare variation is the fusion of gluteus maximus and tensor fasciae latae.

Syn.:m. gluteus magnus Albinus, gluteus major, Grosser Gesässmuskel, Grand fessier.


Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy,12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Gruber, W. (1887) Ein seltener Curvator coccygeus accessorius beim Menschen, homolog dem constanten Depressor caudae longus bei gewissen Säugethieren. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 109:1-4.

Levadoux, M. et -. Levêque. (1907) Note sur les insertions inférieurs du muscle grand fessier. L'Assoc. Anatomistes, Comptes Rendus. 9:128-129.

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