Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: L
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Various attachments have been noted: the second, third, or fourth lumbrical may arise from the short instead of the long flexor tendon, and the first may arise from the tendon of tibialis posterior.
A frequent observation is the contribution of fleshy or tendinous fibers to the lumbricals from flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus.
Macalister reported the variations of the lumbricals of the foot as follows:
Macalister, A. (1866) On muscular anomalies in human anatomy, and their bearing on homotypical myology. Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 10:126-164.
Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. (1875) 25:1-130.
Schmidt, R., Reissig, D. und H.-J. Heinrichs. (1963) Die Mn. lumbricales am fuss des Menschen. Anat. Anz. 113:450-453.Section Top |Title Page
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