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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: O: Obliquus Inferior (Inferior Oblique)

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: O

Obliquus Inferior (Inferior Oblique)

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Variations in extraocular muscles in man have been reported by various authors cited below. An unusual muscle bundle from the inferior oblique (obliquus accessorius inferior [Rex]) has been found passing from the apex of the orbit to join the inferior rectus. The inferior oblique may be doubled or absent.


Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed. The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Bochdalek, Jr. (1868) Beitrag zu des anomalen Muskel in der Augenhole. Vrtljschr. f. d. Prakt., Prag., 4:

Budge, J. (1859) Beschreibung eines neuen Muskels und mehrerer Muskel- und Knochenvarietäten. Zeitschrift für Rat. Med. 3:273-278.

Fleischer, B. (1907) Musculus retractor bulbi und drittes Lid bei einer menschlichen Missbildung. Anat. Anz. 30:465-470.

Fujita, T. (1938) Eine Muskelanomalie in der Orbita. Okajimas Folia Anat. Jap. 16:301-302.

Henle, J. (1873) Sinnesapparat, in Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Mensche. Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.

MacEwen, E.M. (1930) Orbital variations. Anat. Rec. 46:223-232.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J., and T.H. Bryce. (1923) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed. Longmans, Green and Co., London.

Posey, W.C. (1924) Concerning some gross structural anomalies of the muscles of the eye and its adnexa. Arch. of Ophthalmology 53:344-354.

Rex, H. (1887) Über einen abnormen Augenmuskel (Musc. obliquus accessorius inferior). Anat. Anz. 2:624-630.

Strangeways, T. (1868) On a supernunerary oblique muscle off the eyeball. J. Anat. Physiol. 2:245-246.

Whitnall, S.E. (1921) Some abnormal muscles of the orbita. Anat Rec. 21:143-152.

Whitnall, S.E. (1932) The Anatomy of the Human Orbit., 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, London..

Wolff, E. (1954) The Anatomy of the Eye and Orbit, 4th ed., Lewis, London.

Yamada, M., Kumaki, S. and S. Mizukami. (1973) An anomalous ocular muscle of Fujita. Acta. Anat. Nippon 48:227.

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