Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: O
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Reported frequencies are remarkable. Occipitalis minor is always "present" in Malays, in 56% of "blacks", 50% of Japanese, 36% of Europeans, and is "nonexistent" in Hottentots and Melanesians.
Variations are those of origin and insertion, e.g., from the external occipital protuberance and insertion into the parotid fascia and the angle of the mouth interdigitaying with platysma. Insertion into the angle of the mouth allows it to act as a "risorius" muscle.
Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed. The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Gruber, W. (1880) Ein in der Haut oder Fasciae ges Gesichtes und mit seiner Endzacke am Mundwinkel als Musculus risorius endender Musculus occipitalis minor- Santorini. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 80:83-86.
Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.Section Top |Title Page
Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.
All contents copyright © 1995-2016 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.
"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.
Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.
The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.