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Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: O

Omohyoideus, Sternohyoideus, Thyrohyoideus, Sternothyroideus, (Infrahyoid Muscles)

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

These muscles vary considerably in the extent of their development. They may be more or less continuous. The sternal attachment of the sternohyoid is absent more frequently than the clavicular attachment. A strap-like muscle, sternohyoideus azygous, may be found in the midline of the neck from the posterior surface of the manubrium to the hyoid bone. The region between the omohyoid and sternohyoid may be filled with muscle instead of fascia.Each infrahyoid muscle may be divided longitudinally into two distinct fasciculi, or may send slips to each other or to the pretracheal layer of cervical fascia. The infrahyoid muscles may vary in their origin or insertion.

The omohyoid is the most frequently absent of the infrahyoid group. One belly is absent more frequently than both bellies; the inferior belly may be doubled, with the second belly possibly arising from the coracoid process. The inferior belly may attach along the entire length of the clavicle. When the inferior belly is absent, the superior belly arises from the clavicle and the resulting muscle is named cleidohyoideus. The intermediate tendon of the omohyoid may be reduced to a tendinous inscription; in about 10% of cases it is absent. The inferior attachment may take place on the scapular spine, acromion, coracoid process, or even the first rib or clavicle. An extra fasciculus from the clavicle is found in 3% of individuals. Occasionally, a muscle is found extending from the sternum to the clavicle, behind the origin of sternocleidomastoideus. Another fascicle, usually arising behind the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid, may extend in various directions upwards toward the head. It frequently inserts onto the thyroid cartilage (cleidothyroideae) or onto the hyoid bone (cleidohyoideus). The insertion of the superior belly may overshoot the hyoid bone and attach alongside the digastric. A case has been reported of the fascial sling being muscular, resulting in a T-shaped, three-bellied omohyoid.

Unusual omohyoid forms include: cleidofascialis, which originates from the middle third of the clavicle and inserts into the fascia colli (neck); cleidohyoideus, which originates behind the origin of the cleidomastoid part of sternocleidomastoideus and inserts onto the body of the hyoid bone; and hyofascialis, which originates from the hyoid and inserts into the omosternoclavicular fascia.

Cervicocostohumeralis is considered as a case of extreme displacement of the omohyoid. Its origin is the lesser tubercle of the humerus and it insertions are the transverse processof the sixth cervical vertebra and cartilage of the first rib.

Thyrohyoideus may insert onto the cricoid cartilage. A cricohyoid muscle is described as a variant of thyrohyoid. The thyrohyoid is often continuous with the sternothyroid. The medial fibers on both sides of sternothyroideus may form a cruciate pattern. The muscle may exist in two strata, or it may be divided longitudinally into bundles; the lateral bundle may terminate in cervical fascia. A bundle of fibers, levator glandulae thyroideae, is sometimes found passing either from the lower border of the hyoid or from the thyroid cartilage to the lobe, isthmus, or pyramid of the thyroid gland. Included are those fibers joining the inferior constrictor of the pharynx to the thyroid gland. Mori classified the levator glandulae thyroideae into five types as follows. In a study of 210 levator glandulae muscles Mori reported:

  1. Hyopyramidalis: origin; hyoid bone, insertion; tip of pyramidal lobe. 53 of 210 muscles, 25%.
  2. Thyreopyramidalis: origin; thyroid cartilage, insertion; tip of pyramidal lobe. 18/210, 0.8%.
  3. Thyreoglandularis: origin; thyroid cartilage, insertion; sheath of thyroid gland. 115/210, 54.7%.
  4. Hyoglandularis: origin; hyoid bone, insertion; sheath of thyroid gland. 28/210, 13.3%.5) Tracheoglandularis: Upper trachea; insertion; capsule of isthmus of thyroid gland. 7/210, 3.3%.

Syn.: m. coracohyoideus (Riolan), costohyoideus (Santorini), omoplat- ouscapulo-hyoidien (Cruveilhier), Schulterblattzungenbeinmuskel, Schulterzungenbeinmuskel.

Image 130

from Toldt.

Image 133

Levator Glandulae Thyroideae.
from Eisler.

Image 101

Levator Glandulae Thyroideae.
5, Thyroid gland; 6, levator glandulae muscle; 7, trachea. from Eisler.

Image 240

Levator Corporis Thyroidei Muscle
from Toldt


Carrington, R.E., Horrocks, P. and W.H. White. (1883) Abnormalities observed in the dissecting room of Guy's Hospital during the Sessions 1880-81 and 1881-82. Guy's Hospital Reports. 41(26 of 3rd. Series):57-82.

Ceccherelli, G. (1905) Sur quelques anomalies des muscles peaussiers de la face et de muscle omo-hyoïdien. Arch. Ital. Biol. 43:317-318.

Chiba, I., Ogawa, R., Onodera, H., Ribe, T., Saito, F., and M. Saito. (1958) On the anomalies of the sterno-hyoideus and the omohyoideus. Iwate Ika Daigaku Kaibogakukshitsu Gyosekishu 5:87-92. In Japanese.

Civalleri, A. (1906) Contribution à l'ètude des Musculi levatores glandulae thyreoidae et à l'innervation des Musculi sternothyreoideus et thyreohyoideus. Arch. Ital. Biol. 45:281-281.

Eisler, P. (1900) Der M. levator glandulae thyreoidea und verwandte praelaryngeale Muskelbildungen. Anat. Anz. 17:183-196.

Gerard, G. (1899) Note sur une anomalie exceptionelle du muscle omo-hyoïdien. Bibiographie Anatomique. 7:269-276.

Glénard, F. (1869) Anomalie de l'omo-hyoïdien. Lyon Med. 1:411-412. Gruber, W. (1868) Über die Muskeln des unteren Schildknorpelrandes (Musculi thyroeoidei marginales inferiores). Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen. Med. 1868:635-639.

Gruber, W. (1868) Über die Muskeln des unteren Schildknorpelrandes (Musculi thyroeoidei marginales inferiores). Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen. Med. 1868:635-639.

Gruber, W. (1868) Über den seltenen Schildknorpelhorn-Giessbecken-knorplelmuskel (Musculus keratoarytenoideus). Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen Med. 1868:640-641.

Gruber, W. (1868) Über eine neue Variante des Musculus thyreo-trachialis und über den Musculus hyo-trachealis. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen Med. 1868:642-645.

Gruber, W. (1876) Ein Musculus cleido-cervicalis s. tracheloclavicularis imus. Arch. Anat. Wissen. Med. 1876:757-758.

Gruber, W. (1877) Über das neue Anheftungsbündel des Oesophagus an die Glandula thyroidea-Musculus thyreo-oesophageus. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin Med. 69:396-398.

Gruber, W. (1878) Über einen Fall einseitigen Vorkommens zweier den Musculus omohyoideus substituirender Musculi cleidohyoidei. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 73:342-345.

Gruber, W. (1878) Beobachtungen über den Mangel des Musculus omohyoideus. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 73:345-346.

Gruber, W. (1878) Ein den oberen Bauch des Omohyoideus (bei Mangel des unteren Bauches des letzteren) repräsentirender Musculus hyofascialis. Gruber, W. (1879) Musculus hyo-fascialis. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 77:123.

Gruber, W. (1879) Musculus hyo-fascialis. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 77:123.

Jung, A. (1892) Eine noch nicht beschriebene Anomalie des Musculus omo-hyoideus. Anat. Anz. 7:582-584.

Henle, J. (1871) Handbuch der Muskellehre des Menschen, in Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen.. Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

LeDouble, A.F. (1897) Traité des Variations du Système Musculaire de l'Homme et Leur Signification au Point de l'Anthropologie Zoologique. Libraire C. Reinwald, Schleicher Freres, Patis.

Lehr, R.P. (1979) Musculus levator glandulae thyroides: An observation. Anat. Anz. 146:494-496.

Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.

Mori, M. (1964) Statistics on the musculature of the Japanese. Okajimas Folia Jap. 40:195-300.

M'Whinnie, A.M. (1846) On the varieties in the muscular system of the human body. London Medical Gazette. 11:185-196.

Richet, -. (1873) Anomalies musculaires: sterno-cléïdo-mastoïden et l'omoplateo-hyoidïen. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société anatomique de Paris XLVIII(2):137.

Russue, I.G. (1939) Überzähliges Bündel des Musculus omohyoideus. Anat. Anz. 88:420-423.

Shattock, G.S. (1883) A "kerato-thyro-hyoid" muscle as a variation in human anatomy. J. Anat. Physiol. 17:124-125.

Shepherd, F.J. (1880) Notes of abnormalities observed in the dissecting-room of McGill University, from October, 1875, to May,1879. Montreal General Hospital, Annual Reports. 1:71-93.

Steinbach, K. (1923) Uber Varietaten der Unterzungenbein- und Brustmuskulatur. Anat. Anz. 56:488-506.

Tamega, O.J., Garcia, P.J., Soaves, J.C. and N.L. Zorzetto. (1983) About a case of absence of the superior belly of the omohyoid muscle. Anat. Anz. 154:39-42.

Taylor, J. (1925) An unusual variation of the omo-hyoid muscle. J. Anat. 59:331-332.

Turkewitsch, N. (1934) Musculus thyreotrachialis Okajimas Folia Anat. Jap. 12:155-158.

Wagstaffe, W.W. and R.W. Reid. (1875) Anatomical variations. St. Thomas's Hospital Reports. 6:75-95.

Walmsley, T. (1918) Observations on the omohyoid muscle. J. Anat. 52:319-325.

Walsham, J. (1880) Anatomical variations: an account of a few of the more interesting abnormalities that have occurred in the dissecting-rooms during the last seven years; with remarks on their morphological significance, and their bearing on the practice of surgery. St. Bartholomews Hospital Reports. 16:69-105.

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