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Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: P

Panniculus Carnosus

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

The embryologic origin of these muscles probably accounts for the special degree of variability not only in extent and kinds of attachments but in the variety of separate aberrant slips that are occasionally present.

In lower mammals, a great sheet of muscle arises from the early pectoral muscle mass or group and spreads beyond this group. This sheet of muscle, the panniculus carnosus, regresses in higher primates and humans, and its functional significance is diminished since the arm is so free that almost any portion of the body surface may be reached by the hand. The panniculus is represented only by vestigal remnants. Remnants may be found where the pars abdominalis of pectoralis major and pectoralis minor come into close relationship. Hence, when found, remnants of the panniculus are seen as extra, independent, muscular slips from the abdominal aponeurosis which spreads forward on the rectus sheath, or are attached to the fascia over serratus anterior.

Other examples include separate bundles, all of which arise below pectoralis major to be inserted at various points, e.g., the axillary fascia or short of it, the pectoral ridge of the humerus behind the upper part of the pectoral tendon, the fascia between coracobrachialis and pectoralis minor, or the coracoid process.

Other slips may be attached to the fascia of serratus anterior. Still others, arising from the border of latissimus dorsi, extend to the fascia of the arm or pectoral insertion. In many cases, marginal slips of latissimus dorsi are bound up with tendinous remnants of the panniculus and so find secondary attachments to fascia, the humerus, or the coracoid process (costocoracoid muscle). The common variety of axillary arch is a fleshy slip of varying dimensions, often divided by a tendinous intersection, which extends from latissimus dorsi, in the axillary fascia, to pectoralis major, to the short head of biceps brachii, to coracobrachialis, to pectoralis quartus (if present), or the coracoid process.

See also Axillary Arch, Latissimus dorsi, and Pectoralis major. Another sheet of the panniculus, named dorsofascialis, has been reported in a position superficial to the trapezius muscle.

Image 121

from Calori.

Image 113

Varieties of Sternalis Muscle.
from Turner, 1867.


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Adachi, B. (1909) Beiträge zur Anatomie der Japaner. Zeitsch. fur die Morph. u. Anthrop. 12:261-312.

Adachi, B. and U. Fujisawa (1900) The first report on the varaiation of the muscles. Jinruigaku Zasshi 15:137-151. In Japanese.

Bant, A. (1924) A propos de la question morphologiques des muscles périclavicularies surnuméraires chez l'homme et les mammiféres. Soc. Biol., Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires Séances Mem. 90:900-902.

von Bardeleben, K. (1875) Der Musculus "sternalis". Centralblatt Med. Wissen. 27:433-435.

von Bardeleben, K. (1888) Die morphologische Bedeutung des Musculus sternalis. Anat. Anz. 3:324-333.

Barlow, R.N. (1935) The sternalis muscle in American whites and negroes. Anat. Rec. 64:413-426.

Birmingham, A. (1889) Homology and innervation of the achselbogen and pectoralis quartus, and the nature of the lateral cutaneus nerve of the thorax. J. Anat. Physiol. 23:206-223.

Bryce, T.H. (1899) Note on the varieties of the pectoral sheet of muscle. J. Anat. Physiol. 34:75-78.

Calori, L. (1888) Sopra il muscolo episternale e le sue anatomische interpretazioni. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Istituto di Bologna. 9:131-140.

Christian, H.A. (1898) Two instances in which the musculus sternalis existed. One associated with other anomalies. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. (Baltimore) 9:235-240.

Chudzinski, -. (1884) Sur un fasceau supplémentaire du muscle grand pectoral. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. de Paris. 7:446.

Cunningham, D.J. (1884) The musculus sternalis. J. Anat. Physiol. 18:208-210.

Cunningham, D.J. (1888) The musculus sternalis. J. Anat. Physiol. 22:391-407.

Dbaly, J. (1975) Ein Fall von beiderseitigem Vorkommen des muskulören Achselbogens. Anat. Anz. 137:75-78.

Dobson, G.E. (1883) Note on the rectus abdominis and sternalis muscle. J. Anat. Physiol. 17:84-85.

Eisler, P. (1899) Der Musculus sternalis, seine Ursache und Entstehung, nebst Bermerkungen über die Beziehungen zwischen Nerv un Muskel. Zeitschrift fur Morphologie und Anthropologie. 3:21-92.

Feret, J. (1969) A rare case of "costoepitrochlear muscle." Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 28:99-101.

Fick, R. (1891Drie Fälle von Musculus sternalis. Anat. Anz. 6:601-606.

Frank, J. (1914) Uber einen im Leben beobachteten M. sternalis. Anat. Anz. 46:468-652.

Fritsch, G. (1869) Abnorme Muskelbündel der Achselhöhle. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen Med. 1869:367-371.

Futai, K. (1927) On the sternalis of the living human. Juzenkai Zasshi 32:7. In Japanese.

Futai, K. (1931) On the sternalis of the living human. Juzenkai Zasshi 36:399-405. In Japanese.

Gruber, W. (1872) Sur un muscle costo-coracoidien surnumeraire chez l'homme. Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. 17:408-413.

Gruber, W. (1878) Ein Musculus praeclavicularis subcutaneous. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 72:496-497.

Gruber, W. (1881) Musculus sterno-fascialis. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin Med. 86:492-493.

Hata, J. (1947) The M. sternalis of the twin-fetus. Sotaitaiji no Kaibogakuteki Kenkyu 7:177-188. In Japanese.

Hoshiba, M. (1936) The sternalis. Kanazawa Ikadaigaku Kaibogakukyoshitsu Gyosekishu 23:241-261. In Japanese.

Hrytl, -. Zwei Varianten des musculus sterno-calvicularis. Wien. Akad. Sitzungberichte, Math- Natur Kl. 29:265-268.

Huntington, G.S. (1905) The derivation and significance of certain supernumerary muscles of the pectoral region. J. Anat. Physiol. 39:1-54.

Joessel, -. (1867) Ein besonderer Fall von Musculus sternalis. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen. Med. 1867:429-432.

Kacker,G.N. (1960) Sternalis muscle in U.P. Indian subjects. J. Anat. Soc. India. 9:101-103.

Kameda, Y. (1976) An anomalous muscle (accessory subscapularis-teres- latissimus muscle) in the axilla penetrating the brachial plexus in man. Acta Anat. 96:513-533.

Kaneko, M., Noriyasu, S., and K. Mitsuhashi. (1978) In Japanese, English abstract. On a case of musculus supracostalis anterior, Bochdalek junior, variation.

Kaplan, E.B. (1945) Langer's muscle of the axilla. Bull. Hosp. Joint Diseases. 6:78-79.

Keith, A.M. (1894) Note on supracostalis anterior. J. Anat. Physiol. 27:333-334.

Kirk, T.S. (1924-25) Sternalis muscles (in the living). J. Anat. 59:192.

Kodama, K. (1986) In Japanese, English abstract. Morphological significance of the supracostal muscles, and the superficial intercostal nerve: A new definition. Acta Anat. Nippon (Tokyo) 61:107-129.

Lambert, O. (1894) Considération nouvelles à propos d'un nouveauçe de muscle présternal. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. de Paris. 5:237-241.

Langer, C. (1846) Zur Anatomie des Musculus latissimus dorsi. Oesterr. Med. Wochenschrift. 1846:454-458, 486-492.

LeDouble, A. (1890) Sur trente-trois muscles présternaux. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. de Paris. 1:533-554.

LeDouble, A. (1891) Muscles présternaux. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. de Paris. 2:150-154.

LeDouble, A. (1879) Sur le muscle "sternalis brutorum" ou "rectus thoracus" chez l'homme, et de son volume plus considerable à gauche. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. de Paris. 2:480-483.

LeDouble, A. (1894) Sur le muscle présternal. Bull. Soc. Anthropol. de Paris. 5:480-483.

LoCascio, G. (1915) Contribution à la morphologie de l'arc axillaire de Langer. Arch. Ital. Biol. 62:285.

Lunghetti, C. (1907) Sur un muscle surnumérarie axillo-épitrochléaire et. sue d'autres anomalies musculaires. Arch. Ital. Biol. 47:481-482.

von Luschka, H. (1856) Ein musculus supraclavicularis beim Menchen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen Med. 1856:282-285.

Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.

Misra, B.D. (1954) The sternalis muscle. J. Anat Soc. India 3:47-48.

Monterio, H.B. (1919) Notas anatomicas (XIX-XXXIII). Arquivo de Anat. e Antropol, (Lisboa). 5:183-236.

Monterio, H. (1926) L'arc axillaire musculaire et ses relations avec les faisceau pectoraux aberrants. L'Assoc. Anatomistes, Comptes Rendus. 21:262-269.

Morita, M. (1944) Observation on the M. sternalis and Mm. pectoralis of man and mammals. Kaibogaku Zasshi 22:357-396. In Japanese.

Olivier, G. (1952) La fréquence du muscle présternal dans les races jaunes. Bull. Mem. Soc. Anthropol. de Paris. 3:187-189.

Parsons, F.G. (1893) On the morphology of the musculus sternalis. J. Anat. Physiol. 27:505-507.

Patten, C.J. (1933-34) Right sternalis muscle with expanded fenestrated tendon. J. Anat. 68:424-425.

Patten, C.J. (1933-34) Right sternalis muscle, narrow and spindle-shaped. J. Anat. 68:426.

Perrin, J.B. (1871) Notes on some variations of the pectoralis major, with its associate muscles seen during sessions 1868-69, 69-70, at King's College, London. J. Anat. Physiol. 5:233-240.

Perrin, J.B. (1871) A rudiment of the dorsal portion of the panniculus carnosus, superficial to the trapezius. J. Anat. Physiol. 5:241.

Pichler, K. (1916) Achselbogen und M. condro-epitrochlearis bei demselben Träger. Anat. Anz. 49:383-384.

Pitzorno, M. (1911) Contributo alla morphologia dell'arco ascellare muscolare di Länger. Arch. Ital. Anat. Embriol. 10:129-144.

Princeteaux, -. (1892) Note pour servir a l'histoire des anomalies musculaires du creux de l'aisselle. Soc. de Biol. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances et Mémoires 44:202-206.

Ramsay, A. (1812) Account of unusual conformation of some muscles and vessels. Edinburgh Med. Surg. J. 8:281-283.

Rao, V.S. and G.R.K.H. Rao. (1954) The sternalis muscle. J. Anat. Soc. India 3:49-51.

Renvall, G. (1907) Ein Fall von doppelseitigen Turner-Perrinschen Musculus dorsofascialis beim Menschen. Anat. Anz. 31:545-554.

Renvall, G. (1910) Eine ungewöhnliche Varietät des M. pectoralis major, zugleich ein beitrag zur Sternalis Fraga. Anat. Anz. 35:401-407.

Riggs, H.E. and C. Rupp. (1963) Variation in form of Circle of Willis. Archives of Neurology 8(1): 8-14.

Schultz, J. (1888) Zwei Musculi sternalis. Anat. Anz. 3:228-234.

Slobodin, S.G. (1934-35) Zur Fraga über den Musculus sternalis. Anat. Anz. 79:207-211.

Stadler, H. (1930) Über einen Musculus supraclavicularis proprius. Anat. Anz. 69:284-286.

Sueyasu, T., Kojima, T., Sato, M., and -. Saneyoshi. (1957) On the M. sternalis. Kurume Igakkai Zasshi 20:1484-1496. In Japanese.

Taketa, R., Ishikawa, H., Yoshihara, M., and K. Kawahara. (1955) On the M. palmaris longus. Kurume Igakkai Zasshi 18:1051-1058. In Japanese.

Turner, W. (1867) On the musculus sternalis. J. Anat Physiol. 1:246-253.

Turner, W. (1871) A rudiment of the panniculus carnosus superficial to the trapezius. J. Anat. Physiol. 5:116-117.

Vare, A.M. and G.M. Indurkar. (1965) Some anomalous findings in the axillary musculature. J. Anat. Soc. India. 14:478-484.

Vastarine-Cresi, G. (1906) Nourelle variété de musculus supraclavicularis chez l'homme et sa signification probable. Arch Ital. Biol. 46:290-291.

Velluda, C.C. and V. Daghie. (1928) Über einen costo-coracoiden oder WOOD'schen Muskel. Anat. Anz. 65:139-142.

Walmsley, T. (1916) The costal musculature. J. Anat. Physiol. 50:165-171.

Watanabe, R. (1942) The sternal muscle of the school boys. Juzenkai Zasshi 47:66-70. In Japanese.

Weissberg, H. (1932) Über einen Fall von muskulösem Achselbogen. Anat. Anz. 74:105-117.

Willis, T. (1664) Cerebri anatomie: cui accesit nervorum descripto et usus. Martyn and Allestry, London.

Yap, S.E. (1921) Musculus sternalis in filipinos. Anat. Rec. 21:353-366.

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