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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: P: Peroneus Quartus (Otto)

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: P

Peroneus Quartus (Otto)

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Gruber found the peroneus quartus muscle to be present in about 13% of his bodies. The muscle arises from the posterior intermuscular septum and inserts on the fibular aspect of the calcaneus. Hence it has also been called peroneocalcaneus (See also the discussion of m. flexor hallucis longus). This muscle may also exist as a peroneocuboideus when it inserts onto the cuboid bone. Peroneus quartus muscles are located in the pre-achilles fat pad of the lower calf and may appear radiologically as a soft-tissue mass.


Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Gruber, W. (1884) Ein neuer Musculus peroneo-calcaneus externus anterior. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 95:177-179.

Henle, J. (1871) Handbuch der Muskellehre des Menschen, in Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Macalister, A. (1875) Observaions on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.

Perkins, J.D. (1914) An anomalous muscle of the leg: peronaeo-calcaneus internus. Anat. Rec. 8:21-25.

Reimann, R. (1979) Vier Musculi peronei in einem menschlichen unterschenkel. Anat. Anz. 145:205-207.

Shiraki, Y. (1934) On the rare variations of the muscles, M. peroneus quartus and M. extensor digiti brevis. Aichi Igakkai Zasshi. 41:511-514. In Japanese.

Sokolowska-Pituchowa, J. Miaskiewicz, C. Skawina, A. and K. Makos. (1975) Morphologic types of the third peroneal muscle and some indices of the foot in man. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 34:361-366.

Wood, J. (1868) Variations in human myology observed during the winter session of 1867-68 at King's College, London. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 17:483-525.

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