Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: P
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Mori found the muscle absent in 53.4% of 958 body-halves in Japanese and he cites Loth's (1931) summary of other groups of people as follows:
The data provided by Loth was prepared at a time when the majority of the people that were dissected, in each grouping, were (in general) geographically isolated from each other, so that there was little mixing of the gene pool. Inspite of this, the numbers are remarkably similar.
When present, the muscle varies considerably in its site of origin. It may be connected only with the first lumbar vertebra, or with the second lumbar and intervertebral disc (above it); it has been observed to arise from two heads, separate from each other, or to be divided throughout. At its insertion it may end on the iliac fascia, inguinal ligament, neck of the femur, or lesser trochanter with psoas major The tendon of insertion may bifurcate, with one terminating as usual and the second attaching to the synchondrosis between the fifth lumbar vertebra and the sacrum.
According to Macalister the following variations in psoas minor has been described:
Syn.: Psoas parvus.
Psoas Minor, 1.
from Wagstaffe and Reid, 1875
(1861) D'anomalie musculaire de la cuisse. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXVI(2):42.
Anson, B.J.,Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy,12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York.
Henle, J. (1871) Handbuch der Muskellehre des Menschen, in Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.
LeDouble, A.F. (1897) Traité des Variations du Système Musculaire de l'Homme et Leur Signification au Point de Vue de l'Anthropologie Zoologique. Libraire C. Reinwald, Schleicher Freres, Paris.
Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue on the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.
Mori, M. (1964) Statistics on the Musculature of the Japanese. Okajimas' Fol. Anat. Jap. 40:195-300.
Seib, G.A. (1934) Incidence of the m. psoas minor in man. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 19:229-246.
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