Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: Q
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Macalister reported the variations of the quadriceps as follows;
Cruraeus (vastus intermedius) may arise as high as the anterior intertrochanteric line, or not within an inch (2.54 cm) of that line, and it may descend as far as a half an inch (1.27 cm.) to an inch above the knee (Sandifort, 1769), or more commonly it does not extend below a point three to four inches above the knee. This muscle is usually inseparable from the vastus internus (medialis), so much so that Nuhn and Cruveilhier regard them both as one. Cruraeus (vastus intermedius) and subcruraeus (m. articularis genu) are frequently united, or, when no subcruraeus is present deep fibers are, rarely, attached to the synovial membrane of the knee. Vastus intermedius is composed of muscle lamellae superimposed concentrically about the shaft of the femur. The deepest, most distal of these lamallae is called articularis genu. The fiber bundles of this layer are inserted into the capsule of the joint or into the the superior margin of the patella, and ultimately, through the ligamentum patellae, into the tuberosity of the tibia. Articularis genu may be absent.
Macalister continues his account of the variations of quadriceps as follows: The Vastus internus (medialis) varies only by being-
Vastus externus (vastus lateralis) may also be bilaminar and united with vastus medialis at its insertion, or to vastus intermedius, or to the rectus, or to a lateral slip of articularis genu, when this muscle consists of two lateral slips, but this is very rare. Doubling of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis mimics the condition found in many birds.
Sub-cruraeus (articularis genu) is found to be liable to atrophy, absence, splitting, or fusion, with vastus intermedius. Its discovery is credited to Dupré, in his work, "Sur les Sources de la Synovie, 1699. Albinus also described the muscle in "Annotations Acad., lib. iv., cap 5, p.27, ~1734. The muscle may be inserted at either side of the knee, or into the upper part of the synovial membrane; its lateral slips, when split, are usually equal.
Rarely, a slip (rectus accessorius) may arise from a tendon at the edge of the acetabulum and insert into the ventral edge of vastus lateralis. The quadriceps of the thigh corresponds in a general way to the triceps group (including anconeus) in the arm.
Syn.: m. extensor cruris. Rectus femoris: extensor cruris medialis superficialis (Meckel),rectus anterior (Krause), Gerader Schenkelmuskel, Droit antérieur. Vastus lateralis: vastus externus (Henle), extensor cruris vastus s. externus (Meckel), Aeusserer dicker Schenkelmuskle, Aeusserer Unterschenkelstrecker. Vastus medialis: vastus internus (Henle). Vastus intermedius: cruralis s. cureus s. femoreus (Henle), Vastus medius (Krause), Tiefer Unterschenkelstrecker. The three portions, the vasti: extensor triceps (M.J. Weber), with rectus femoris: extensor quadriceps (Hyrtl).
Drachmann, A.G. (1837) Translation by J.W. Moore. Case of congenital absence of the quadriceps extensor crurius muscle. J. Anat. Physiol. 7:310-311.
Gruber, W. (1878) Beobachtungen über den Mangel des Musculus quadratus femoris. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 73:346-348.
Gruber, W. (1879) Nachtrag zu den Beobachtungen uber den Mangel des Musculus quadratus femoris. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 77:131
Gruber, W. (1880) Ein bilaminärer Musculus vastus externus biceps. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 82:473-474.
Gruber, W. (1888) Ein Musculus rectus femoris accessoris. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 114:367-368.
Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.
Takeshige, A., Okinaga, H., Shirai, N., and M.Tanaka. (1960) Variation of the origin of the M. quadriceps femoris. Kurume Igakkai Zasshi 23:861-864.
Williams, W.R. (1879) The anatomy of the quadriceps extensor cruris. J. Anat. Physiol. 13:204-218.Section Top |Title Page
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