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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: S: Sphincter Urethrae

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: S

Sphincter Urethrae

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
There is considerable variation in the muscles composing the urethral sphincter.

References

Macalister, A. (1875) Additional observations on muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. (Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published.) Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130, 1875.

Anson, B.J. Ed. Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th Ec. The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1966.

Gardner, E., Gray, D.J. and R. O'Rahilly, Anatomy, 3rd Ed. W.B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1969

Gegenbaur, C. Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, 3rd Ed. V. Wilhelm Engelmann. Leipzig, 1888.

Henle, J. Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen, 3 volumes. von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig, 1868.

Huber, C.G., Ed. Piersol's Human Anatomy, 9th Ed. L.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1930.

Hyrtl, J. Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, 19th Ed. Wilhelm Braumüller, Wien, 1887.

Jackson, C.M., Ed. Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th Ed. P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia, 1993.

Kopsch, F. Rauber's Lerbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig, 1908.

Latarjet, A. Testut's Traite D'Anatomie Humaine, 9th Ed. G. Doin & Cie., Paris, 1948.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce, Eds. Quains's Anatomy, 11th Ed. Longmans. Greem, and Co., London, 1923.

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