Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: S
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Mori has reported three forms of variation for this muscle:
Right and left side variations are:
A bundle of muscle fibers sometimes passes from the tip of the styloid process to the angle of the mandible, forming what may be termed stylomandibularis. The stylohyoid may be absent uni- or bilaterally; duplication of the stylohyoid has also been observed. Another slip, stylohyoideus profundus, varies in its insertion, sometimes accompanying the styloidhyoid proper, sometimes inserting into the lesser horn of the hyoid, and in some cases replacing the stylohyoid ligament. Accessory slips may join the muscle from the digastric, from the stylomandibular ligament , or the angle of the mandible.
Another muscular slip is occasionally found, stylochondrohyoideus (Douglass) or stylohyoideus novus (Santorini) or stylohyoideus profundus (Sappey), passing from the styloid process to the lesser horn (cornu) of the hyoid bone, accompanying or replacing the stylohyoid ligament. The lessor cornu is the most common insertion site but others are also seen.
If the stylohyoid fails to divide near its insertion (which typically permits passage of the intermediate tendon of the digastric), the insertion may be a single head passing in front or behind the digastric tendon.
Syn.: m. Griffelzungenbeinmuskel.
Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed. The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Hashimoto, I. (1959) The relation of the situation between the M. stylohyoideus and the digastricus mandibulae. Kaibogaku Zasshi 34:333-339. In Japanese.
Henle, J. (1871) Handbuch der Muskellehre des Menschen, in Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.
Jordan, J. (1963) On the deep stylohyoid muscle in man. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 22:7-10.
Kirino, T. and I. Hashimoto. (1954). The relationship between the M. stylohyoideus and the venter posterior m. digastrici. Kokubyori Gakkai Zasshi 21:172. In Japanese.
Koike, C. and Y. Takayama. (1958) The muscles inserted into the processus styloideus. Tokyo Shikadaigaku Kaibogakukyoshitsu Gyosekishu 8:1-4. In Japanese.
Macalister, A. (1871) The varieties of the styloid muscles. J. Anat. Physiol. 5:28-31.
Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on the muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.
Mori, M. (1964) Statistics on the musculature of the Japanese. Okajimas Fol. Anat. Jap. 40:195-300.
Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1923) Quain's Elements of Anatomy, 11th ed. Longmans, Green and Co., London.
Tsukamoto, T. and S.Tanaka. (1958) On the M. digastricus, M. stylohyoideus. Tokyo Shikadaigaku Kaibogakukyoshitsu Gyosekishu 8:1-4. In Japanese.
Weber, A. (1918) Signification du muscle stylo-hyoidien profound. Soc. Biol., Comptes Rendus Hebdomadiares des Séances et Mémoires 81:816-817.Section Top |Title Page
Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.
All contents copyright © 1995-2017 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.
"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.
Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.
The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.