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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: S: Stylopharyngeus

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: S


Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

This muscle is frequently divided into two or three slips. Supernumerary muscles of the pharynx are common. They frequently originate from the petrous portion of the temporal bone in front of the carotid canal, the vaginal process of the temporal spine (petropharyngeus), the basilar process (occipitopharyngeus), and, very rarely, the mastoid process (mastoidopharyngeus). Occasionally a small median strip of muscle arises form the pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone and inserts on the raphe or posterior wall of the pharynx (azygopharyngis). The fibrous capsule of the pharyngeal tonsils may receive a slip of muscle from stylopharyngeus (stylotonsillaris [Luschka]), a slip to the thyroid cartilage, and another to the oblique arytenoid muscle.

The stylopharyngeus is innervated by the glossopharyngeal nerve, and the constrictors are innervayed by the pharyngeal plexus from the pharyngeal branch of the vagus (thought to consist primarily of the nerve fibers of the bulbar portion of the accessory nerve).

Syn.: m. levator s. dilator pharyngis (Henle), levator pharyngis externus (Arnold)


Agarwal, I.P. (1955) A supernumerary stylopharyngeus muscle. J. Anat. Soc. India 4:45.

Gruber, W. (1885) Ein musculus stylo-pharyngeus biceps durch Auftreten eines vom Processus mastoides entsprungenen Caput accessorium. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 102:536-538.

Gruber, W. (1885) Ein Musculus stylo-pharyngeus biceps durch Auftreten cines vom Processus mastoides entsprungenen Caput accessorium. Archiv f. Pathologische Anatomic u. Physiologic u .f. klinische Medicin 102(l):536-538.

Guerrier, Y. and Ngo-Van-Hein. (1952) L'appareil musculaire du segment pharyngo-oesophagien etude statistique. L'Assoc. Anatomistes, Comptes Rendus 39:279-288.

Henle, J. (1873) Handbuch der Einigeweidelehre des Menschen, in Handbuch der systematischen Anatomie des Mensche. Verlag von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Koike, C. and Y. Takayama. (1958) The muscles inserted into the processus styloideus. Tokyo Shikadaigaku Kaibogakukyoshitsu Gyosekishu 8:1-4. In Japanese.

Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on the muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.

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