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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: T: Tibialis Anterior

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus I: Muscular System: Alphabetical Listing of Muscles: T

Tibialis Anterior

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

The tendon may be found divided, for a variable distance proximally, into a cuneal (reference os cuneiform) and metatarsal slip; in very rare instances, this division may involve the whole muscle. In some cases, a deep division of the tendon has been found inserted onto the talus (m. tibioastragalus of Gruber), and the tendon may also supply a slip to the head of the first metatarsal or base of the first phalanx. A separate muscular slip, tibiofascialis anticus, sometimes occurs. It arises from the lower end of the tibia and ends on the annular ligament or deep fascia; it may be represented only by a tendinous slip from tibialis anterior itself. Tibialis anterior usually inserts onto the medial surface of the first cuneiform and the base of the first metatarsal.


Image of insertionsAccessory Insertions of Tibialis Anterior Tendon

Syn.: m. tibiaeus anticus s. anterior, hippicus, catenae, Vorderer Schienenmuskel, Jambier.

Image 204

Tibioastragalus Anticus
See A. a, tibialis anterior; b, tibioastragalus; c, inferior extensor retinaculum; gamma, the deepest layer of the retinaculum is the insertion for the unusual muscle.
from Gruber, 1871.


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D'Evant, T. (1899) Sur la signification morphologique du m. tibialis anticus. Arch. Ital. Biol. 32:457.

Gruber, W. (1871) Uber einen Musculus tibio-astragaleus anticus des Menschen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. Wissen. Med. 1871:663-693.

Gruber, W. (1887) Ein dreibäuchiger Musculus tibialis anticus, zugleich ein Tensor ligamenti cruciati tarsi. Arch. Path. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 107:480-484.

Hallisy, J.E. (1930) The muscular variations in the human foot. A quantitative study. Amer. J. Anat. 45:411-422.

Luchansky, E. and Z. Paz. (1986) Variations in the insertion of tibialis anterior muscle. Anat. Anz. 162:129-136.

Macalister, A. (1875) Observations on the muscular anomalies in the human anatomy. Third series with a catalogue of the principal muscular variations hitherto published. Trans. Roy. Irish Acad. Sci. 25:1-130.

Miyasaki, M., Morotomi, S., Kitano, S., Sayanagi, T., and K. Kondo. (1959) Statistic of the M. tibialis anterior. Kurume Igakkai Zasshi 22:1274-1278. In Japanese.

Musial, W.W. (1963) Variations in the terminal insertions of the anterior and posterior tibial muscles. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 22:237-247.

Sala, L. (1896) Sur un muscle tibio-péronéo-astragalien. Arch. Ital. Biol. 26:489.

Seelaus, H.K. (1927) On certain muscle anomalies of the lower extremity. Anat. Rec. 35:185-191.

Stepién, E. (1967) Accessory insertions of the tendon of the anterior tibialis muscle in man. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 26:216-219.

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Wood, J. (1865) Additional varieties in human myology. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 14:378-392.

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Wood, J. (1868) Variations in human myology observed during the winter session of 1867-68 at King's College London. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 17:483-425.

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