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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Cranial Nerves and Ganglia: Abducens (CN VI) Nerve

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Cranial Nerves and Ganglia

Abducens (CN VI) Nerve

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Several variations have been reported in the course and/or distribution of this nerve. It may be absent on one side, in which case the extraocular muscle usually innervated by the abducens (the lateral rectus) is supplied by the oculomotor nerve. The abducens may leave the brain stem not as a single bundle but as several widely separated fascicles emerging from the lower border of the pons or between fibers of the pyramid.

The abducens occasionally furnishes a branch to the superior rectus, or to the nasociliary nerve or even to the ciliary ganglion.

The abducens nerve to the abducens muscle may be found doubled.


References

Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Benninghoff, A. (1952) Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich.

Cordier, -. et -. Coulouma. (1932) Recherches sur les nerfs du sinus carotidien et sur leurs variations. Assoc. Anatomistes Comptus Rendus 27:161-178.

Cruveilhier, J. (1851) Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Gegenbaur, C. (1888) Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, 3rd ed. V. Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Hyrtl, J. (1887) Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, 19th ed. Wilhelm Braumüller, Wien.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Mori, K. Anomalies of the Central Nervous System. Neuroradiology and Neurosurgery. Thieme-Stratton, Inc., New York.

Piffer, C.R. and N.L. Zorzetto. (1980) Course and relations of the abducens nerve. Anat. Anz. 147:42-46.

Pitres, A. et L. Testut. (1925) Le Nerfs en Schemas. G. Doin & Cie, Paris.

Romanes, G.J. (1972) Cunningham's Textbook of Anatomy, 11th ed. Oxford University Press, London.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

Whitnall, S.E. (1932) The Anatomy of the Human Orbit, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press, London.

Wysiadecki G., Polguj M., and Topol M. (2016) An unusual variant of the abducens nerve duplication with two nerve trunks merging within the orbit: a case report with comments on developmental background. Surg Radiol Anat 38:625–629.

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