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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Brain: Brain Stem

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Brain

Brain Stem

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Heterotopias of white matter within the medulla oblongata have been described.

The left pyramid decussates first in about 73% of individuals. Interesting variations in the pyramidal tracts have been reported. In about 71% of 144 specimens, both crossed and uncrossed pyramidal tracts were present bilaterally. In 13%, only crossed tracts were present; in 12%, both crossed tracts and one uncrossed tract were present; in 2.8%, only uncrossed tracts were found; and in 0.7%, one pyramid was totally crossed, and the other pyramid was totally uncrossed.


References

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Bergeron, R.T. (1967) Pneumographic demonstration of subependyml heterotopic cortical gray matter in children. Am. J. Roentgenol. 101:168-167.

Deeb, Z.L., Rothfus, W.E. and J.C. Maroon. (1985) MR imaging of heterotopic gray matter. J. Comp. Assist. Tomogr. 9(6):1140-1141.

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Hoche, A. (1897) über Variationen im Verlauf der Pyramidenbahn. Neurol. Centralblatt 16:993-997.

Maunoury, G. (1880) Anomalies considèrables des circonvolutions cèrèbrales. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LV(1):28-32.

Mikhael, M.A. and A.G. Mattar (1978) Malformation of the cerebral cortex with heterotopia of the gray matter. J. Comput. Assist. Tomogr. 2:291-296.

Mueller, C.F. (1970) Heterotopic gray matter. Radiology 94:357-358.

Quinquaud, -. (1867) Anomalie des fibres arciformes du bulbe rachidien. Bulletins et Mem. de la Societe Anatomique de Paris XLII(1):19-21.

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