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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Fissures and Sulci: Central Sulcus (Fissure)

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Fissures and Sulci

Central Sulcus (Fissure)

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

Usually, the central sulcus presents two anterior convexities, but occasionally, four or five may occur. The upper half of the sulcus may turn sharply backward. The upper end of the sulcus usually cuts the dorsal border of the brain and turns caudally; rarely, it ends as much as 1 cm from the dorsal border. The upper third of the sulcus is frequently separated from the rest of the sulcus. The lower part of the sulcus may be directed forward and may unite with the subcentral anterior sulcus. In some cases, the central sulcus may be interrupted, doubled, or absent; when doubled, the sulci are separated by the rolandic gyrus. The name rolandic was first applied by Leuret in 1839 (Anatomie Comparée du Systéme Nerveux) because the Italian anatomist Rolando directed attention to the sulcus. However, this sulcus was seen and recorded by Viq d'Azyr (Traité d'Anatomie et de Physiologie) in 1796.


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Sperino, G. (1901) Decrizione morfologica dell'encefalo del Prof. Carlo Giacomini. Int. Monatsschrift. Anatomie and Physiology 18:313-386.

Thompson, R.B. (1911-12) Complete unilateral interruption of the fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 45:433-437.

Tricomi, G. (1902) Deux cas de duplicité du sulcus Rolandi. Arch. Ital. Biol. 37:490.

Waterson, D. (1907) Complete bilateral interruption of the fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 41:143-146.

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