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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Fissures and Sulci: Central Sulcus (Fissure)

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Fissures and Sulci

Central Sulcus (Fissure)

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


Usually, the central sulcus presents two anterior convexities, but occasionally, four or five may occur. The upper half of the sulcus may turn sharply backward. The upper end of the sulcus usually cuts the dorsal border of the brain and turns caudally; rarely, it ends as much as 1 cm from the dorsal border. The upper third of the sulcus is frequently separated from the rest of the sulcus. The lower part of the sulcus may be directed forward and may unite with the subcentral anterior sulcus. In some cases, the central sulcus may be interrupted, doubled, or absent; when doubled, the sulci are separated by the rolandic gyrus. The name rolandic was first applied by Leuret in 1839 (Anatomie Comparée du Systéme Nerveux) because the Italian anatomist Rolando directed attention to the sulcus. However, this sulcus was seen and recorded by Viq d'Azyr (Traité d'Anatomie et de Physiologie) in 1796.

References

Chi, T.K. and C. Chang. (1941) The sulcal pattern of the Chinese brain. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 28:167-207.

Connolly, C.J. (1941) The fissural pattern in the brain of Negroes and Whites. The frontal lobe. Am. J. Physiol. Anthrop. 28:133-165.

Connolly, C.J. (1942) The fissural patternin the brain of Negroes and Whites. The parietal and temporal lobes. Am. J. Physiol. Anthrop. 29:225-265.

Cunningham, D.J. (1890) The fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 25:1-23.

Debierre, C. (1891) Sur les anomalies des circonvolutions du cervéau de l'homme. Duplicilé de la sissure de Rolando, absence de la scissure de Rolando. Soc. Biol. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances et Mémoires. 43:369-372.

Gerlach, E.j. and H. Weber. (1929) über ein menschliches Gehirn mit beiderseitger Verdoppelung der Zentralfurche. Anat. Anz. 67:440-452.

Leggiardi-Laura, C. (1901) Sur la signification de la "duplicité de la scissure de Rolando" et sur un rapport constant de la scissure post-rolandique. Arch. Ital. Biol. 36:355.

Linell, E.A. and B.M. Koster. (1924) A developmental anomaly of the cerebral cortex. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 12:167-172.

Sergi, S. (1911) Variations de developpement du lobe frontal chez l'homme. Arch. Ital. Biol. 55:138-139.

Sperino, G. (1901) Decrizione morfologica dell'encefalo del Prof. Carlo Giacomini. Int. Monatsschrift. Anatomie and Physiology 18:313-386.

Thompson, R.B. (1911-12) Complete unilateral interruption of the fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 45:433-437.

Tricomi, G. (1902) Deux cas de duplicité du sulcus Rolandi. Arch. Ital. Biol. 37:490.

Waterson, D. (1907) Complete bilateral interruption of the fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 41:143-146.

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