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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses: Femoral Nerve

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses

Femoral Nerve

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

In its course to the thigh, the femoral nerve may pierce m. iliacus. The nerve has been reported to enter the thigh between the femoral artery and vein.

The anterior cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve may arise from the beginning of the femoral nerve or directly from the lumbar plexus. It may partly or completely replace the femoral branch of the genitofemoral nerve. The posterior branch of the medial cutaneous nerve may be small or absent, in which case its usual area of supply is provided by the obturator or saphenous nerve.

The saphenous nerve may end at the knee and may be replaced in the leg by a branch of the tibial nerve.

The patellar branch of the saphenous nerve may arise from the nerve to vastus medialis. The saphenous sometimes provides the medial dorsal digital nerve to the great toe. The saphenous nerve may or may not pierce the sartorius muscle at the leg.

Branches from the femoral nerve to mm tensor fasciae latae and adductor longus have been reported. A branch was also found passing behind the femoral artery and vein, joining an accessory obturator nerve, and supplying a part of the obturator muscle.

The portion of the nerve arising from L4 may run a separate course. Leaving the pelvis with the superior gluteal nerve, it may pass under the fascia lata to supply rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. The femoral nerve may run buried in a cleft of the iliacus under the psoas.

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Ehler, E., Gärtner,L., Schultz, M. and W. Schünke. (1959) Zur Frage der Verteilung der Femoralisäste im m. vastus medialis mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Kniegelenkäste. Anat. Anz. 107:414-423.

Ferner, H. (1940-41) Ein abnormer Verlauf des Nervus femoralis. Anat. Anz. 90:124-127.

Gisel, A. (1947-48) Ein Nervus femoralis accessorius. Anat. Anz. 96:371-376.

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Hollinshead, W.H. and J.E. Markee. (1946) The multiple innervation of limb muscles in man. J. Bone Joint Surg. 28:721-731.

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Leggett, T.H., Jr., and J. Linitz. (1913) Eine Varietät eines Teiles des N. femoralis. Anat. Anz. 43:232-233.

Oertel, O. (1923) Abnormer Verlauf des Nervus femoralis. Anat. Anz. 56:550-553.

Outi, H. (1956) Pri la interrilato de la femura nervo kaj la psoasmuskolo, precipe pri la t.n. akcesora femura nerve kaj la akcesora fasko de la psoas-muskolo. Folia Anat. Jpn. 28:384-412.

Paterson, A.M. (1894) The origin and distribution of the nerves to the lower limb. J. Anat. Physiol. 28:84-95, 169-193.

Polacek, P. (1958) Ein Beitrag zur frage des N. femoralis accessorius und N. obturatorius accessorius. Anat. Anz. 105:141-148.

Pürner, J. (1971) über den peripheren Verlauf des N. saphenous. Anat. Anz. 129:114-132.

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Sirang, H. (1972) Ursprung, Verlauf und Äste des N. saphenous. Anat. Anz. 130:158-169.

Tindaro Renda, D. (1967) Variazione insolita nel decorso del nervo femorale, nell'uomo. Anat. Anz. 121:214-219.

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