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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division: First Thoracic Ganglion

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division

First Thoracic Ganglion

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


The first thoracic is usually larger than the others and is variable in shape (ovoid or semilunar). It may be fused with the inferior cervical (stellate) or second thoracic ganglion.

References

Cruveilhier, J. Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Ehrlich, E., Jr. and W.F. Alexander. (1951) Surgical implications of upper thoracic independent sympathetic pathways. Arch. Surg. 62:609-614.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Veweg und Sohn, Baunschweig.

Jackson, C.M., Ed. (1933) Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th ed., P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.

Jameison, R.W., Smith, D.B. and B.J. Anson. (1952) The cervical sympathetic ganglia. An anatomical study of 100 cervicothoracic dissections. Q. Bull. Northwestern University Medical School 26:219-227.

Jit, I. and R. N. Mukerjee. (1960) Observations on the anatomy of the human thoracic sympathetic chain and its branches; with an anatomical assessment of operations of hypertension. J. Anat. Soc. India 9:55-82.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humain, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

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