Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Cranial Nerves and Ganglia
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
When the foramen is absent, it may have a special groove, the frontal notch (Henle).
The frontal nerve runs, at first forward, in a roughly a sagittal direction. In approximately 90% of subjects it divides during its course within the orbit, but in 10.5% it remains undivided. It divides into the larger lateral supraorbital nerve and smaller supratrochlear nerve which runs medially. In 58.8% of subjects the supraorbital nerve does not divide (Trauzette and Jo, 1972), but in 30.7% it divides into the medial branch which leaves the orbit through the frontal foramen or notch, and the lateral branch passes-out through the frontal foramen and notch. In about 90% of subjects the supratrochlear nerve runs along the surface of the superior oblique muscle. In 4.4% there are two supratrochlear nerves.
Cushing, H. (1904) The sensory distribution of the fifth cranial nerve. Johns Hopkins Hospital Bulletin 15:213-232.
Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menchen. von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn. Braunschweig.
Huber, G.C. (1930) Piersol's Human Anatomy, 9th ed., L.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.
Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce, Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed. Longmans, Green, and Co., London.Section Top | Title Page
Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.
All contents copyright © 1995-2018 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.
"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.
Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.
The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.