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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Cranial Nerves and Ganglia: Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) Nerve

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Cranial Nerves and Ganglia

Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) Nerve

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

This nerve may supply the mylohyoid and the anterior belly of the digastric nerve. A communicating branch sometimes arises between the glossopharyngeal and facial nerves.

A tympanic branch of the glossopharyngeal may arise from two roots, one of which may come from the vagus.

The glossopharyngeal may receive fibers from the hypoglossal just distal to the hypoglossal foramen.


Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed. The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

Fróes da Fonseca, A. (1922) Beobachtung einer Anastomose zwischen Glossopharyngeus und Hypoglossus. Anat. Anz. 55:551-553.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Freidrich Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.

Hirschfield, L. (1866) Traité et Iconographic du Systéme Nerveux et des Organes des Sens de l'Homme, Atlas, 2nd ed. Victor Masson et Fils, Paris.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen, Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traite d'Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed., G.Doin & Cie., Paris.

Partridge, E.J. (1918) The relations of the glossopharyngeal nerve at its exit from the cranial cavity. J. Anat. 52:332-334.

Reichert, F.L. (1934) Neuralgias of the glossopharyngeal nerve. With particular reference to the sensory, gustatory and secretory functions of the nerve. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 32:1030-1037.

Reichert, F.L. and E.J. Poth. (1933) Recent knowledge regarding the physiology of the glossopharyngeal nerve in man with an analysis of its sensory, motor, gustatory and secretory functions. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bulletin 53:131-139.

Romanes, G.J. (1953) The distribution of taste buds on the human epiglottis. J. Anat. 87:464.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington and T.H. Bryce. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

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