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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division: Greater Splanchnic Nerve

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division

Greater Splanchnic Nerve

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


The greater splanchnic is usually formed from the seventh, eight, and ninth thoracic ganglia, but the upper and lower limits are variable. The nerve arises symmetrically in only 12% of bodies (100 cadavers).

So-called normal nerves (T7-T9) occurred in 23%; only 9% of these were symmetric bilaterally.


References

Cruveilhier, J Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Edwards, L.F. and R.C. Baker. (1940) Variations in the formation of the splanchnic nerves in man. Anatomical Record 77:335-342.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Veweg und Sohn, Baunschweig.

Jackson, C.M., Ed. (1933) Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th ed., P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Królikowska, M. and R. Zawodniak. (1979) Variation of origin of major, minor and the lowest splanchnic nerves in man. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 38:341-346.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humain, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Loeweneck, H., Stork, H.T. and P. Loeweneck. (1970) Variationsstatistische Untersuchung zum Zwerchfelldurchtritt der Nervi splanchnici. Anat. Anz, 126:531-547.

Pereira, S. (1930) Sur les rapports des nerfs splanchniques avec les piliers du diaphragme chez l'homme. Assoc. Anatomistes Comptes Rendus 25:252-266.

Reed, A.F. (1951) The origins of the splanchnic nerves. Anat. Rec. 109:341.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

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