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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division: Inferior Cervical Ganglion

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division

Inferior Cervical Ganglion

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

The inferior cervical ganglion is irregular in shape and usually larger than the middle ganglion. It is frequently combined with the first thoracic and is named the stellate (cervicothoracic) ganglion.

A direct communication to the phrenic nerve is often derived from the inferior ganglion, less frequently from the middle cervical ganglion.

The sympathetic chain on the left side may split and encircle the subclavian artery.


Allan, F.D. (1958) An analysis of the cervicothoracic visceral branches of the vagus and the sympathetic trunk in the presence of an anomalous right subclavian artery. Anat. Rec. 132:71-80.

Cruveilhier, J. (1851) Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Veweg und Sohn, Baunschweig.

Jackson, C.M., Ed. (1933) Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th ed., P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.

Jamieson, R.W., Smith, D.B. and B.J. Anson. (1952) The cervical sympathetic ganglia. An anatomical study of 100 cervicothoracic dissections. Q. Bull. Northwestern University Medical School 26:219-227.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humain, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Lazorthes, G. and L. Cassan. (1939) Essai de schématisation des ganglions étiolé et intermédiaire (ganglion cervico-thoracique) d'après 80 dissections chez l'adulte et chez le foetus. Assoc. Anatomistes Comptes Rendus 1939:193-210.

Monteiro, H. and A. Rodrigues. (1931) Sur les variations du nerf vertebral. Assoc. Anatomistes Comptes Rendus 26:406-419.

Perlow, S. and K.L. Vehe. (1935) Gross anatomy of the stellate and lumbar sympathetic ganglia. Am. J. Surg. 30:454-458.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

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