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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division: Least (Lowest) Splanchnic Nerve

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division

Least (Lowest) Splanchnic Nerve

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

This nerve may be absent (11% on the right side and 4% on the left side). The splanchnicus imus usually arises from the twelfth thoracic ganglion. It may be absent bilaterally in 2% of bodies. When absent, the lesser splanchnic supplies the renal plexus. The nerve arises symmetrically in 79% of bodies. "Normal" nerves were found in 92% of bodies and were symmetric in 77%.


Cruveilhier, J Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Edwards, L.F. and R.C. Baker. (1940) Variations in the formation of the splanchnic nerves in man. Anat. Rec. 77:335-342.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Baunschweig.

Jackson, C.M., Ed. (1933) Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th ed., P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Królikowska, M. and R. Zawodniak. (1979) Variation of origin of major, minor and lowest splanchnic nerves in man. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 38:341-346.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humain, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Pereira, S. (1930) Sur les rapports des nerfs splanchniques avec les piliers du diaphragme chez l'homme. Assoc. Anatomistes Comptes Rendus 25:252-266.

Reed, A.F. (1943) The origins of the splanchnic nerves. Anat. Rec. 109:341.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

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