Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
The root from the seventh cervical nerve may be missing. An additional root from the eighth cervical nerve has been reported. Infrequently, the long thoracic nerve does not pass through scalenus medius and the nerve trunk is formed over the first rib. Hence, the upper part may pass throught the axilla unattached to the fascia.
The nerve is usually formed of the fifth, sixth, and seventh cervical nerves; the first two pierce m. scalenus medius while the seventh passes in front of that muscle.
Furukawa, T. (1989) External respiratory nerve of Bell (long thoracic nerve). Neurology 39:147-148.
Hayek, H. von (1951-52) Variationsstätistische Untersuchungen über die erste Verlaufsstrecke des Nerven thoracicus longus. Anat. Anz. 98:105-115.
Hochstetter, A von. (1986) über eine chirurgisch bedeutsame Varietät im Verlaufe des N. thoracicus longus. N. thoracicus longus, a variation of surgical interest. Anat. Anz., Jena 162:125-127.
Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce, Eds., (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.
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