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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses: Title

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses

Lumbosacral Trunk

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed

The fourth lumbar (or furcal) nerve usually contributes to both the lumbar plexus and (through the lumbosacral trunk) the sacral plexus.

Contribution to the lumbosacral trunk may come from the third or the fifth lumbar nerve.

Sometimes the branch from the fourth lumbar nerve to the lumbosacral plexus is absent. In such cases, the fifth lumbar nerve supplies branches to both the lumbar and sacral plexuses. Thus, contributions to both plexuses may come from the fourth lumbar nerve, the third and fourth, the fourth and fifth or the fifth lumbar nerve alone.


Bardeen, C.R. (1901) A statistical study of the variations in the formation and position of the lumbo-sacral plexus in man. Anat. Rec. 19:124-128, 209-232.

Jamieson, E.B. (1903) Some anomalies in nerves arising from the lumbar plexus, and a bilaminar musculus pectineus in a foetus; and on variations in the nerve supply in man and in some other mammals. J. Anat. Physiol. 37:266-286.

Urbanowicz, Z. (1981) Connections between the lumbar and the sacral plexus in man. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 40:271-279.

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