Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
The branch from the main trunk of the nerve to obturator externus may pass to the lateral (instead of medial) side of the obturator nerve.
The obturator nerve may have additional roots from the first or fifth lumbar nerves. The cutaneous branch is frequently absent.
An accessory obturator nerve has a reported incidence of 29%, 13%, or 8% according to different authors. It arises from the third or more commonly the third and fourth lumbar nerves between the roots of the femoral and obturator nerves. The accessory nerve may also arise from L2,L3 and L4; L2,L3; or L3; or it may arise from the obturator nerve. Although it may be closely related to the femoral nerve, it usually courses with the obturator to the level of the pelvic brim, but instead of passing through the obturator foramen, it descends along the medial border of the psoas muscle, crosses the anterior brim of the pelvis, passes beneath m. pectineus, and terminates in three branches, which are also variable. These branches supply the pectineus, the hip joint, and, by rejoining the obturator, the adductor muscles. The terminal branches, individually, usually replace the femoral branch to pectineus and usually supply the hip joint. They may, however, only supply m. pectineus or they may make a significant contribution to the innervation of the adductor muscles.
Anson, B.J., Ed. (1966) Morris' Human Anatomy, 12th ed., The Blakiston Division, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York.
Bergman, R.A., Thompson, S.A., Afifi, A.K. and F.A. Saadeh. (1988) Compendium of Human Anatomic Variation., Urban & Schwarzenberg, Munich and Baltimore.
Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Vieweg und Sohn, Braunschweig.
Kaiser, R.A. (1949) Obturator neurectomy for coxalgia. An anatomical study of the obturator and the accessory obturator nerve. J. Bone Joint Surg. (Am) 31:815-819.
Katritsis, E., Anagnostopoulou, S. and N. Papadopoulos. (1980) Anatomical observations on the accessory obturator nerve (Based on 1000 specimens). Anat. Anz. 148:440-445.
Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.
Moghaddam, T.C. (1963) Variationen des N. Obturatorius und N. obturatorius accessorius. Anat. Anz. 113:1-18.
Paterson, A.M. (1894) The origin and distribution of the nerves to the lower limb. J. Anat. Physiol. 28:84-95, 169-193.
Polacek, P. (1958) Ein Beitrag zur Fage des N. femoralis accessorius und N. obturatorius accessorius. Anat. Anz. 105:141-148.
Schaefer, Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce, Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.
Sugihara, T,M, (1956) pectineus kaj gia nervo. Folia Anat. Jpn. 28:377-388.
Woodburne, R.T. (1956) The accessory obturator nerve and the innervation of the pectineus muscle. Anat. Rec. 136:367-369.
Zaluska, S. (1971) The obturator nerve in man and macaca. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 30:89-96.Section Top | Title Page
Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.
All contents copyright © 1995-2018 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.
"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.
Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.
The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.