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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Fissures and Sulci: Precentral Sulcus

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Fissures and Sulci

Precentral Sulcus

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


The precentral sulcus may be composed of two or three parts: precentral inferior, precentral medius, precentral superior. In about 17% of brains, the precentral sulcus does not show discontinuity into separate parts.

The upper extremity of the precentral inferior sulcus may be located anterior to the lower end of the precentral superior sulcus or may unite with the latter forming a continuous sulcus. Occasionally, a horizontal ramus extends from the precentral inferior sulcus above the inferior frontal sulcus; this horizontal ramus may be confluent with the middle or superior frontal sulci.

A separate precentral medius sulcus may be present. Most frequently, it is derived from the upper part of the precentral inferior sulcus, or the posterior part of the horizontal ramus. The precentral superior sulcus may give rise to the superior frontal sulcus. A posterior ramus of the precentral superior sulcus is sometimes present and may appear as an extension of the superior frontal sulcus. A superior precentral sulcus may cut (12%) or reach (14%) the superomedial border of the frontal lobe, but in most cases (74%) it fails to reach that border.

Image 05


References

Chi, T.K. and C. Chang. (1941) The sulcal pattern of the Chinese brain. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 28:167-207.

Connolly, C.J. (1941) The fissural pattern in the brain of Negroes and Whites. The frontal lobe. Am. J. Physiol. Anthrop. 28:133-165.

Connolly, C.J. (1942) The fissural pattern in the brain of Negroes and Whites. The parietal and temporal lobes. Am. J. Physiol. Anthrop. 29:225-265.

Cunningham, D.J. (1890) The fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 25:1-23.

Debierre, C. (1891) Sur les anomalies des circonvolutions du cervéau de l'homme. Duplicilé de la sissure de Rolando, absence de la scissure de Rolando. Soc. Biol. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances et Mémoires. 43:369-372.

Gerlach, E.J. and H. Weber. (1929) über ein menschliches Gehirn mit beiderseitger Verdoppelung der Zentralfurche. Anat. Anz. 67:440-452.

Leggiardi-Laura, C. (1901) Sur la signification de la "duplicité de la scissure de Rolando" et sur un rapport constant de la scissure post-rolandique. Arch. Ital. Biol. 36:355.

Linell, E.A. and B.M. Koster. (1924) A developmental anomaly of the cerebral cortex. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatry 12:167-172.

Sergi, S. (1911) Variations de developpement du lobe frontal chez l'homme. Arch. Ital. Biol. 55:138-139.

Sperino, G. (1901) Decrizione morfologica dell'encefalo del Prof. Carlo Giacomini. Int. Monatsschrift. Anatomie and Physiology 18:313-386.

Thompson, R.B. (1911-12) Complete unilateral interruption of the fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 45:433-437.

Tricomi, G. (1902) Deux cas de duplicité du sulcus Rolandi. Arch. Ital. Biol. 37:490.

Waterson, D. (1907) Complete bilateral interruption of the fissure of Rolando. J. Anat. Physiol. 41:143-146.

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