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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses: Sacral Plexus

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses

Sacral Plexus

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


The origins of nerves of the sacral plexus are variable. The range of these variations, primarily from the work of Eisler, is tabulated below.

 

Range of Variation of Sacral Plexus (table from Bardeen)

Nerve

High form of plexus

Usual form of plexus

Low form of plexus

Composition

Lumbosacral Trunk

L4

L4

L4

N. to Quad. Femoris

L4, L5

L4, L5, S1

L5, S1

N. to Obturator Internus

L4, L5, S1, S2

L5, S1, S2

S1, S2, S3

Tibial

L3, L4, L5, S1, S2

L4, L5, S1, S2, S3

L5, S1, S2, S3, S4

Superior Gluteal

L4, L5, S1

L4, L5, S1, S2

L5, S1, S2

Inferior Gluteal

L4, L5, S1

L5, S1, S2

L5, S1, S2

N. to Piriformis

L5, S1, S2

S1, S2

S1, S2, S3

Common Peroneal

L3, L4, L5, S1

L4, L5, S1, S2

L5, S1, S2, S3

Posterior Femoral Cutaneous

L5, S1, S2

S1, S2, S3

S2, S3, S4

Pudendal

L5, S1, S2, S3

S1, S2, S3, S4

S1, S2, S3, S4

Extreme Range of Variation

 

Lumbosacral Trunk

L3 or L3, L4

L4

L4, L5, or L5

Common Peroneal

L3, L4, L5, S1, S2

L4, L5, S1, S2

L4, L5, S1, S2, S3, S4

Tibial

L3, L4, L5, S1, S2

L4, L5, S1, S2, S2

L4, L5, S1, S3, S4

Posterior Femoral Cutaneous

L5, S1, S2, S3

L5, S1, S2, S3, S4

L5, S1, S2, S3, S4

 

Image 68


References

Bardeen, C.R. (1901-02) A statistical study of the abdominal and border nerves in man. Am. J. Anat. 1:203-228.

Bardeen, C.R. (1906-07) Development and variation of the nerves and musculature of the inferior extremity and of the neighboring regions of the trunk in man. Am. J. Anat. 6:259-390.

Bardeen, C.R. and A.W. Elting. (1901) A statistical study of the variations in the formation and position of the lumbo-sacral plexus in man. Anat. Anz. 19:124-128, 209-232.

Eisler, P. (1892) Der Plexus lumbosacralis des Menschen. Halle.

Paterson, A.M. (1887) Morphology of the sacral plexus in man. J. Anat. Physiol. 21:407-412.

Urbanowicz, Z. (1891) Connections between the lumbar and the sacral plexus in man. Folia Morphol. (Warsaw) 40:271-279.

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