Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
In the coccygeal region, anterior roots may be completely absent or increased in number (one, two or more). This is usually associated with an unusual number or arrangement of vertebrae. The spinal ganglion and sensory root of the coccygeal nerves may be absent; the same may occur to a lesser degree in other spinal nerves. Occasionally, rudimentary anterior roots are found in the filum terminale. One or two additional coccygeal nerves may be present bilaterally or only on one side.
Communicating branches between roots (dorsal or ventral) of adjacent spinal nerves may occur.
The majority of spinal ganglia are located in the intervertebral foramina, closely ensheathed but entirely outside the cavity or sac of the dura mater.
The ganglia of the fifth lumbar and first four sacral lie within the vertebral canal, but these are also extradural. The fifth sacral and the coccygeal nerves (when present) are located within the dural cavity. This may also be true of the first cervical ganglion when it is present.
Blood Supply of Nerves, 1 - 22
Blood Supply of Nerves, 23 - 29
Blood Supply of Nerves, 30 - 41
Blood Supply of Nerves, 42 - 60
Blood Supply of Nerves, 61 - 74
Blood Supply of Nerves, 75 - 90
Blood Supply of Nerves, 91 - 105
Blood Supply of Nerves, 106 - 117
Blood Supply of Nerves, 118 - 122
Blood Supply of Nerves, 123 - 127
Bartholdy, K. (1897) Die Arterien der Nerven. Morphologische Arbeiten 7:393-456.
Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn., Braunschweig.
Huber, G.C., Ed. (1930) Piersol's Human Anatomy, 9th ed., L.B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia.
Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.
Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humaine, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.
Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.Section Top | Title Page
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