Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Sympathetic Division
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
Variations in the course of the other cervical nerves are common. A pretracheal branch arising from the communication between the superior cardiac nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve has been reported. It descends on the trachea and terminates in the pericardium and anterior pulmonary plexus.
A ganglion (so-called temporal ganglion) is sometimes found as a part of the external carotid artery plexus near the point of origin of the posterior auricular artery. It may be about 2 mm in length. It has been reported to receive nerve fibers from the stylohyoid branch of the facial nerve.
Image 73A Image 73B Image 73C Image 73D Image 73E Image 73F
Cruveilhier, J. (1851) Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.
Ellison, J.P. and T.H. Williams. (1969) Sympathetic nerve pathways to the human heart and their variations. Am. J. Anat. 124:149-162.
Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn, Baunschweig.
Jackson, C.M., Ed. (1933) Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th ed., P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.
Jamieson, R.W., Smith, D.B. and B.J. Anson. (1952) The cervical sympathetic ganglia. An anatomical study of 100 cervicothoracic dissections. Q. Bull. Northwestern University Medical School 26:219-227.
Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.
Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humain, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.
Monteiro, H. et A. Rodrigues. (1931) Sur le variation du nerf vertebral. Assoc. Anatomistes Comptes Rendus 26:406-419.
Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.
See Also References cited for the Third and Fourth Sacral Nerves.Section Top | Title Page
Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.
All contents copyright © 1995-2018 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.
"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.
Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.
Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.
The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.