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Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses: Third and Fourth Sacral Nerves

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus III: Nervous System: Plexuses

Third and Fourth Sacral Nerves

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


The levator ani may be supplied by either the third or the fourth sacral nerves. In one study of 30 subjects, the levator muscle was supplied by the third sacral in 17 and by the fourth sacral in 13 subjects

References
Cruveilhier, J Traité d'Anatomie Descriptive, 3rd ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Henle, J. (1868) Handbuch der Systematischen Anatomie des Menschen. von Friedrich Veweg und Sohn, Baunschweig.

Jackson, C.M., Ed. (1933) Morris' Human Anatomy, 9th ed., P. Blakiston's Son & Co., Inc., Philadelphia.

Kopsch, F. (1908) Rauber's Lehrbuch der Anatomie des Menschen. Georg Thieme, Leipzig.

Latarjet, A. (1948) Testut's Traité d'Anatomie Humain, 9th ed., G. Doin & Cie., Paris.

Schaefer, E.A., Symington, J. and T.H. Bryce., Eds. (1915) Quain's Anatomy, 11th ed., Longmans, Green, and Co., London.

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