Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus IV: Organ Systems
Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD
Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed
As there are no two signatures or two sets of fingerprints that are alike, no two bodies are alike. Understanding variation is essential.
Dr. Watson, writing in 1836 of some cases of transposition in the human body, remarked that he had been recently informed by a student of King's college, that he (the student) had found the thoracic and abdominal viscera transposed in an acephalous kitten. There is a passage in Galen which seems to prove, not only that the ancients were aware of the occasional existence of heterotaxy in the human body, but that they had met with still oftener in brutes.
Anatomy textbooks provide an incomplete compilation of anatomic facts, describing parts of a body, which form a concept of a single whole creation, that probably never existed except as the described parts.
Eight hundred - eighty three journals were reviewed. Complete journal titles, rather than their cited abbreviated form given with referenced articles, can be found listed in part 2, Cardiovascular System.
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