Anatomy Atlases(tm) : A digital library of anatomy information

Home | Search | About Us | FAQ | Reviews | Contact Us

Anatomy Atlases: Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus IV: Organ Systems: Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra

Illustrated Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation: Opus IV: Organ Systems: Urinary System

Kidneys, Ureters, Bladder, and Urethra

Ronald A. Bergman, PhD
Adel K. Afifi, MD, MS
Ryosuke Miyauchi, MD

Peer Review Status: Internally Peer Reviewed


According to Gutierrez, 40% of pathologic conditions of the urinary system are due to variations. Urologic variations are found in 10% of vertebral variations, in 15% of meningocele or myleomeningocele, in 25% of double anus, 42% of duplication of colon, 90% of duplication of genitalia (Cernak, 1989).

The kidneys sometimes vary from their normal form, being either longer and narrower or shorter and more rounded.

The characteristic fetal lobulation may persist in the adult (7%).

Occasionally, one kidney is very small, while the other is proportionally enlarged.

Numerous cases are recorded of absence of one kidney, most frequently the right. Congenital absence of a kidney has a reported frequency of 0.24% (6,500 autopsies) or in another study of 52,198 cases the incidence of agenesis was 1/1000 or 0.10%.

Ectopic kidney has a reported frequency of 1:500 to 1:110; ectopic thoracic kidney, 1:13,000 (solitary kidney, 1:1,000; solitary pelvic kidney, 1:22,000; one normal and one pelvic kidney, 1:3,000, and crossed renal ectopia, 1:7,000.

The single kidney is usually enlarged, but not invariably. The left kidney is usually larger than the right.

Berengario da Carpi (1523) was the first to write on fused kidneys with horseshoe configuration. They were first described and illustrated however by Botallo in 1564. When it is elongate it may lie, in part, behind the esophagus.

On average, in males the right is 12.7 X 6.3 cm while the left is 13.2 X 6.4 cm. In females, the right is 12.4 X 5.9 cm and the left is 12.8 X 6.1 cm. These figures come from radiologic studies. The occurrence of an additional kidney is rare. In one case, the right kidney was normal, but on the left side there were two kidneys (an upper and lower) separated from one another by a distance of 3 cm. The ureter from the upper kidney was joined by that from the lower, so that there were only two uteric openings into the bladder.

The two kidneys may be joined by their upper and lower poles or even in the middle of the organs. They cross in front of the great vessels and vertebral column. The conjoined organ usually has the form of a horseshoe, with the convexity downward due to fusion of the caudal ends of the two kidneys. Horseshoe kidney was found in 0.21% of 6,500 autopsies in one study and in 0.12% in 68,000 autopsies (1:850) in another. Cumulative data from 192 authors (202,777 autopsies and x-ray studies) indicated a total of 378 horseshoe kidneys. The incidence therefore is about 1:536 or 0.19%; 84% of cases in males and about 17% in females. In one study of 2424 cases, 15 horseshoe kidneys were found in males and three in females.

Sometimes two united kidneys are situated in the lumbar region on one side of the vertebral column, or more rarely in the cavity of the pelvis. Pelvic kidney was found in 0.04% of 6,500 autopsies.

Dumbbell- shaped organs or two disk-shaped kidneys joined together at their midpoint have also been described.

The kidneys may be mobile, owing to the laxity of its areolar and adipose capsule. These conditions occur much more frequently with the right kidney. The perinephric fatty tissue is continuous across the mid-line from one kidney to the other.

  1. Anomalies of Number
    1. Absence of both kidneys
    2. Absence of one kidney (solitary kidney)
    3. Double or multiple kidney (supernumerary kidney)
      • Unilateral or Bilateral
  2. Variations in Size
    1. Hypoplastic kidney.
      • True renal hypoplasia.
      • Renal aplasia.
    2. Hypertrophic kidney.
      • Lobulated.
      • Compensated.
  3. Variations of Form.
    1. Long kidney.
    2. Short kidney.
    3. Broad kidney.
    4. Lobulated kidney.
    5. Cystic kidney.
    6. Polycystic kidney.
      • Unilateral.
      • Bilateral.
    7. Fused kidney.
  4. Variation of Position.
    1. Movable or floating kidney.
    2. Ectopic kidney.
      • Simple unilateral.
      • Simple bilateral.
      • Bilateral with fusion (horseshoe kidney).
      • Crossed with or without fusion.
      • Any of these variations of position may be Lumbar, Iliac, Plevic or Median.

Variations of Rotation.

  1. Deficient rotation.
  2. Excessive rotation.

The Excertory Apparatus of the Kidney (Calices, Pelvis and Ureter):

  1. Calices
  2. Renal Pelvis
  3. Ureter

Modified from Gutierrez, 1936.

The calices minores may vary in number from six to 14, the smaller number indicating that some of the calices minores embrace the apices of several pyramids. Variations in the calices minores and pelvis are more marked.

The calices majores may pass downward for some distance beyond the hilum, and end by joining to form the ureter without undergoing and obvious expansion. In such cases, the pelvis is absent; if the calices dilate, one or two pelves may be present.

Unilateral renal agenesis associated with genital anomalies have been reported to occur in 12% of men and 40% of women. Anomalies of the seminal vesicle are uncommon but when they do occur, in 68% of such cases, unilateral renal agenesis is also found.

Bilateral anephrogenesis has an incidence of 0.0017%.

Heterotopic renal tissue has been reported in the heart and in the suprarenal gland.

The principal variation in the ureter is a more or less complete division into two. As a rule, the two ureters unite a little above the bladder, so that there is only one vesical orifice. When the division is complete there are two separate openings into the bladder. In one study of 26,480 autopsies, 136 double or bifid ureters were found (0.5%).

In rare cases, three or four ureters may be found. Several instances are recorded in which a supernumerary ureter, proceeding from the upper part of the kidney, opened directly into the urethra. Ureters have also been reported to open into the vagina, the seminal vesicle, or the prostatic urethra.

The right ureter has been found passing behind the inferior vena cava (postcaval or retrocaval ureter) between that vessel and the aorta.

Urinary bladders of variable shape (e.g., hourglass bladder) have been reported. The bladder may be doubled. Agenesis has a reported incidence of 1:600,000 (0.00017%).

The urethra may be doubled.

Horseshoe Kidney

Kidney - Horseshoe

Horseshoe Kidney

Horseshoe Kidney with Three Ureters

Pelvic Kidney

Supernumerary Third Kidney

Bilateral Duplication of the Ureter

Types of Double Urethra

Unilateral, Incompletely Bifid Ureter

Sigmoid Kidney

Bilateral Bifid Ureters

Fused Kidneys

Fused Horseshoe Kidneys

Horseshoe Kidneys

Types of Triplicate Ureter

Patterns of Pelvis and Calyces

Congenital S-shaped kidney


References

Abeshouse, B.S. (1944) Surgery of the congenital anomalous kidney. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 78:288-303.

Abeshouse, B.S. (1947) Crossed ectopia with fusion: Review of literature and a report of four cases. Am. J. Surg. 73:658-683.

Abeshouse, B.S. and L.H. Tankin. (1952) Retrocaval ureter: Report of a case and a review of the literature. Am. J. Surg. 84:383-393.

Adam, E.A. (1929) Report of a case of congenital single kidney with associated absence of uterus and vagina. New England J. Med. 200:1037.

Adams, A.W. (1960) The movable kidney syndrome. A successful nephroprexy: Historical survey and current assessment. Brit. J. Surg. 48:319-323.

Agran, M.A. and E.A. Kratzman. (1969) Inferior vena cava on the left side: Its relationship to the right ureter. J. Urol. 101:149-151.

Albers, D.D., Geyer, J.R. and S.D. Barnes. (1968) Blind-ending branch of bifid ureter: Report of 3 cases. J. Urol. 99:160-164.

Albers, D.D., Geyer, J.R. and S.D. Barnes. (1981) Clinical significance of the blind-ending branch of a bifid ureter: Report of three additional cases. J. Urol. 105:634-637.

Albu, I., Vaida, A. and F. Grigorescu-Sido. (1973) Ein Fall von mehrfacher beidseitiger Nierenanomalie beim Menschen. Anat. Anz. 133:207-213.

Alfert, J.J. and J.Y. Gillenwater. (1972) Ectopic vas deferens communicating with lower ureter: Embryologic considerations. J. Urol. 108:172-173.

Almeda, F. de. (1933) Sur l'irrigation d'un rein en fer-à-cheval. Assoc Anatomistes, Comptes Rendus 28:16-18.

Almquist, P.O. (1946) Unilateral double ureter with partly vaginal, partly normal outlet. Acta Chir. Scand. 93:495-502.

Alt, R.E. (1934) Ectopic ureter in the female. J. Urol. 32:249-260.

Amar, A.D. (1972) Treatment of reflux in bifid ureters by conversion to complete duplication. J. Urol. 108:77-78.

Amolsch, A.L. (1937) Bilateral metanephric agenesis: With report of four cases. J. Urol. 38:360-370.

Anders, J.M. (1910) Congenital single kidney, with report of a case; The practical significance of the condition with statistics. Am. J. of the Med. Sci. 139:313-327.

Anderson, G.W., Rice, G.G. and B.A. Hariss, Jr. (1951) Pregnancy and labor complicated by pelvic ectopic kidney. J. Urol. 760-776.

Ang, A.H. and W.F. Chan. (1972) Ectopic thoracic kidney. J. Urol. 108:211-212.

Anile, A. (1899) A propos d'un rein en fer-à-Cheval. Arch. Ital. Biol. 32:468.

Anson, B.J. and L.W. Riba. (1939) The anatomical and surgical features of ectopic kidney. Surg., Gynecol.Obstet. 68:37-44.

Anson, B.J., Pick, J.W. and E.W. Cauldwell. (1942) The anatomy of commoner renal anomalies. Ectopic and horseshoe kidneys. J. Urol. 47:112-132.

Attie, J. (1961) Congenital absence of the penis: A report of a case with congenital concealed penile agenesis and congenital absence of the left kidney and ureter. J. Urol. 86:343-345.

Badenoch, A.W. (1946) Failure of ureogenital union. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 82:471-474.

Baines, G.H. 91940) Supernumerary and ectopic ureters: Carcinoma of a double kidney, with ectopia of one ureter. Brit. J. Surg. 28:314-319.

Ballowitz, E. (1895) über angeborenen, einseitigen, vollkommenen Nierenmangel. Arch. Pathol. Physiol. Klin. Med. 141:309-390.

Banner, E.A. (1965) The ectopic kidney in obstetrics and gynecology. Surg.,, Gynec. Obstet. 121:32-36.

Barry, J.M. and R.D. Fincher. (1984) Transplantation of a horseshoe kidney into 2 recipients. J. Urol. 131:1162-1163.

Barth, -. (1850) Anomalie des reins. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXV(4):115-116.

Barth, -. (1853) Un rein unique avec deux uretèrs occupant le rein gauche. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXVIII(11):338.

Bastien, -. et -. Le Gendre. (1859) Absence complète de l'utérus de trompes, du vagin et du rein droit. Soc. Biol. Comptes Rendus des Séances et Mémoires 11:96-99.

Baurys, W. (1951) Fused pelvic kidneys. J. Urol. 65:781-783.

Becquerel, -. (1837) Rein unique. Bulletins et Memoirs de la Société Anatomique de Paris XII (5)(1837):132.

Beer, R. and W.L.F. Ferber. (1937) Crossed renal ectopis (unilateral, fused, or elongate kidney): With report of fourteen cases clinically diagnosed and two cases encountered at autopsy during the past eighteen years. J. Urol. 38:541-561.

Beer, E. and W.H. Mencher. (1938) Heminephroectomy in disease of the double kidney: Report of fourteen cases. Ann. Surg. 108:705-729.

Begg, R.C. (1953) Sextuplicitas renum: A case of six functioning kidneys and ureters in an adult female. J. Urol. 70:686-693.

Benjamin, J.A. and C.E. Tobin. (1951) Abnormalities of the kidneys, ureters, and perinephric fascia: Anatomic and Clinical study. J. Urol. 65:715-733.

Benjamin, J.A. and D.M. Schullian. (1950) Observations on fused kidneys with horseshoe configuration: Contribution of Leonardo Botallo (1564). J. Hist. Med. 5:315-326.

Blanchard, -. (1869) Rein unique en form de fer à cheval. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLIV(6):302-303.

Blin, L. (1852) Description d'un cas d'anomalie des members supérieurs et inférieurs. Réunion des deux reins en un seul. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXVII(9,10):376-389.

Blundon, K.L. (1962) The treatment of retrocaval ureter in the solitary kidney. J. Urol. 88:32-39.

Boatman, D.L., Culp, Jr., D.A., Culp, D.A. and R.H. Flocks. Crossed renal ectopia. J. Urol. 108:30-31.

Boetz, G. (1912) Considerations sur la pathologie et la chirurgie du rein en fer a cheval. J. Urol. (Paris) 1:193-204, 373-392, 502-516,633-654.

Botallo, L. (1564) De catarrho commentarius...Addita est fine monstrorum renum figura, muper in Cadauere repertorum. Paris.

Botallo, L. (1660) Opera omnia (with notes by Johannes Van Horne). Leyden.

Boujinah, J. and S. Zmerli. (1973) L'uretère bifide à branche borgne. A propos d'un cas. J. Urol. Néphrol. 89:61-63.

Boulgakow, B. and N. Fahmy. (1926) A case of unilateral duplication of the ureter. J. Anat. 60:342-344.

Bouliane, R. and A. Slomic. (1978) Uretère double à branche borgne. Présentaion d'un cas et review de la littérature. J. Radiol. Electrol. 59:49-52.

Boyd, R. (1841) Case of malposition of the kidneys, absence of the vagina, uterus, and Fallopian tubes; disease of left ovary. Medico-Chirurg. Trans. 24:187-189.

Boyden, E.A. (1937) Congenital absence of the kidney. An interpretation based upon a 10 mm human embryo exhibiting unilateral renal agenesis. Anat. Rec. 52:325-349.

Boyden, E.A. (1932) Description of a horseshoe kidney associated with left inferior vena cava and disc-shaped suprarenal glands, together with a note on the occurrence of horseshoe kidneys in human embryos. Anat. Rec. 51:187-211.

Braasch, W.F. (1931) Anomalous renal rotation and associated anomalies. J. Urol. 25:9-21.

Braasch, W.F. and A.J. Scholl, Jr. (1922) Pathologic complications with duplication of the renal pelvis and ureter (double kidney). J. Urol. 8:507-558.

Brandin, L., Mocelin, A.J., Fraga, A.M.A. and G. Lacerda. (1978) Transplantation of a horseshoe kidney. Brit. J. Urol. 50:284.

Brickel, A.C.J. (1926) Ectopia vesicae. Anat. Rec. 34:1-14.

Britt, D.B., Borden, T.A. and D.M. Woodhead. (1972) Inverted Y ureteral duplication with a blind-ending branch. J. Urol. 108:387-388.

Broca, -. (1850) Deux uretéres pour un seul rein. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXV(5):165-166.

Brodel, M. (1901) The intrinsic blood vessels of the kidney. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 12:10-13.

Broesike, G. (1884) Ein Fall von congenitaler S-förmiger Verwachsung beider Nieren. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 98:338-341.

Brooks, Jr., R.E. (1962) Left retrocaval ureter associated with situs inversus. J. Urol. 88:484-487.

Brown, M. (1894) Variations in the position and development of the kidneys. J. Anat. Physiol. 28:193-194.

Bumpus, Jr., H.C. (1931) Unusual duplication of the renal pelvis. J. Urol. 25:39-41.

Burford, C.E., Glenn, J.E. and E.H. Burford. (1949) Ureteral ectopia: A review of the literature and 2 case reports. J. Urol. 62:211-218.

Burkle, E.C., Wenzel, J.E. and D.C. Uta. (1967) The intrathoracic kidney. Report of a case. Am. J. Disease Child. 113:487-490.

Burt, J.C., Lane, C.M. and J.L. Hamilton. (1941) An unusual anomaly of the upper urinary tract. J. Urol. 46:235-240.

Busk, G. (1846) Account of a case of congenital deficiency of one kidney, with granular degeneration of the existing one. Medico-Chirurg. Trans. (London) 29:269-276.

Calmettes, -. (1868) Anomalies multiples; asymétric du crane; scoliose de la colonne vertébrale; absence congénitale d'un cartilage costal du côte droit, du rein droit, et du pouce du même côté. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLIII(5):371-373.

Calori, L. (1886) Caso di un rene a ferro di cavallo. Mem. R. Accad. Sci Istituto di Bologna S. 4. 6:73-83.

Calori, L. (1888) Sui nervi di un rene a ferro di cavallo con ectopia del rene sinistro. Mem. R. Accad. Sci. Istituto di Bologna S. 4. 9:451-460.

Campbell, M.F. (1930) Renal Ectopy. J. Urol. 24:187-198.

Campbell, M.F. (1937) Ectopic ureteral orifice: A report of 17 cases in children. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 62:22-29.

Carleton, A. (1936-37) Crossed ectopia of the kidney and its possible cause. J. Anat. 71:292-298.

Carlson, H.E. (1950) Supernumerary kidney: A summary of fifty-one reported cases. J. Urol. 64:224-229.

Carson, W.J. (1930) Congenital solitary kidney. Wisconsin Med. J. 29:154-156.

Casubon, -. (1869) Anomalie des reins. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLIII(5):359-360.

Charles, -. (1863) Un anomalie des rapports de l'urètre avec la prostate. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXXVIII(2):62.

Chassaignac, -. (1840) Un cas d'anomale de situation des reins. Bulletins et Memoires de la Société Anatomique de Paris XV(1840):76-77.

Cheselden, W. (1713) Some anatomical observations. Philosophical Transactions. Roy. Soc. Lond. 28:281-282.

Chwalla, -. (1935) Ureter triplex. Zeitschr. f. Urol. Chir. 41:224-225.

Cohen, S.J. (1968) Diphallus with duplication of the colon and bladder. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 61:305-306.

Coppridge, W.M. (1934) Bilateral pelvic kidneys. J. Urol. 32:231-235.

Cords, E. (1911) über eine Anomalie des Nierenbeckens bei normaler Lage des Organes. Anat. Anz. 38:549-554.

Coughlan, J.D. (1985) Blind-ending branch of a trifid ureter. Urol. Radiol. 7:172-173.

Cox, W.L. and G. Machado. (1968) Abdominal aortic aneurysm with horseshoe kidney. Angiology 19:351-353.

Culp, O.S. (1944) Treatment of horseshoe kidneys. Ann. Surg. 119:777-787.

Culp, O.S. (1947) Ureteral diverticulum: Classification of the literature and report of an authentic case. J. Urol. 58:309-321.

Culp, O.S. and P.E. Heibert. (1944) Clinical significance of congenital anomalies of the kidney and ureter. J. Urol. 51:397-403.

Cunningham, D.J. (1895) The form of the spleen and the kidneys. J. Anat. Physiol. 29:501-517.

Cutore, G. (1913) Rein unique ectopique et autres anomalies de développement dans le cadavre d'un petite fille. Arch. Ital. Biol. 60:309-310.

Darner, H.L. (1924) Bilateral ectopic kidneys. J. Urol. 12:193-214.

Daseler, E.H. and B.J. Anson. (1943) Anatomical relations of ectopic iliolumbar kidneys, bilateral in adult, unnilateral in fetus. J. Urol. 49:789-802.

Davidson, A. (1868) Notice of a case of malposition of the right kidney. J. Anat. Physiol. 2:282.

Day, R.V. (1924) Some rare anomalies of the kidney and ureter with case reports. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 38:51-57.

De, M.N. and S.C. Sinha. (1933-34) A case of displaced and malformed kidney. J. Anat. 68:357-360.

DeCastro, F.J. and H. Schumacher. (1969) Asymtomatic thoracic kidney. Clin. Pediatr. 8:279.

Dees, J.E. (1940) Anomalous relationship between ureter and external iliac artery. J. Urol. 44:207-215.

Dees, J.E. (1941) The clinical importance of congenital anomalies of the upper urinary tract. J. Urol. 46:659-666.

Derbes, V.J. and W.A. Dial. (1936) Postcaval ureter. Two cases. J. Urol. 36:226-233.

Derbes, V.J. and M.J. LaNasa. (1937) Postcaval ureter and hydronephrosis. case report. Urol. Cutaneus Rev. 41:172-175.

Derrick, Jr., F.C., Rosenbaum, R.R. and K.M. Lynch, Jr. (1967) Pathological association of the right ureter and right ovarian vein. J. Urol. 97:633-640.

Dial, W.A. (1936) Retrocaval ureter and right aorta. Anat. Rec. 65:239-245.

Dixon, A.F. (1911) Supernumerary kidney: The occurrence of three kidneys in an adult male subject. J. Anat. Physiol. 45:117-121.

Dodson, A.I. (1944) Ureteral diverticula with large stone and under developed kidney: case report. J. Urol. 52:526-535.

Doyen, -. (1857) Division complete de rein droit à la suite de la pression exercée par une roué voiture. Anaomalie de l'artère rénale droit. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXXII(5):155-159.

Drummond, D.H. and H.D. Palmer. (1939) Unilateral renal agenesis with associated genital anomalies. J. Urol. 42:317-320.

Duckworth, -. (1869) Single kidney, with compensory enlargement. Trans. Path. Soc. Lond. 20:232-233.

Duff, P. A. (1950) Retrocaval ureter: case report. J. Urol. 63:496-499.

Durand Fardel, -. (1851) Cas d'absence du rein droit et de la capsule surrenal. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXVI(2):39.

Durand Fardel, R. (1880) Rein unique: Le deux reins sont fusionnés sur la ligne médiane. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LV(1):109.

Dwight, T. (1895) Case of absence of the right kidney. J. Anat. Physiol. 29:18-19.

Edwards, H. (1929) Aberrant accessory ureter associated with hydronephrosis. J. Anat. 64:94-96.

Eisenberg, M.J., Weingarten, M. and M. Abdul-Quader. (1986) Bifid blind-ending ureters. J. Urol. 136:90-91.

Eisendrath, D.M. Phifer, F.M. and H.B. Culver. (1925) Horseshoe kidney. Ann. Surg. 82:735-764.

Eisendrath, D.N. (1930) Hydronephrosis due to obstruction of the renal pelvis by one or two main renal arteries. J. Urol. 24:173-185.

Eismayer, G. (1923) Über uterus-missbildung bei kongenitalem Mangel einer Niere. Zeitschr. f. Urol. Chir. 11:191-220.

Ekehorn, G. (1922) Zur Behandlung durch anormale Nierengefässe verursachte Hydronephrose. Z. Urol. Chir. 10:122-124.

Féré, Ch. (1881) Rein unique en fer á cheval. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LVI(6):417.

Féré, Ch. (1881) Rein á double bassinet avec un seul uertére. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LVI(6):417-418.

Ferrand, -. (1862) Anomalie du rein et de la uretère droit. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXXVII(2):448-49.

Fine, H. and E.N. Keen. (1966) The arteries of the human kidney.J. Anat. 100(4):881-894.

Fjelborg, O. and C.H. Kim. (1972) Double ureters in renal transplantation. J. Urol. 108:377-379.

Forbes, G. (1945-46) Pelvic ectopic kidney. Brit. J. Surg. 33:139-142.

Fortune, C.H. (1927) The pathology and clinical significance of congenital one-sided kidney defect with the presentation of three new cases of agenesis and one of aplasia. Ann. Internat. Med. 1:377-399.

Foucher, -. (1854) Un anomalie des reins; deux uretèrs, deux arteres rénales, deux hiles. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXIX(11):334-335.

Francis, C.C. (1940) A case of prepenile scrotum (marsupial type of genitalia) associated with absence of urinary system. Anat. Rec. 76:303-308.

Friedlowsky, A. (1869) übef Hufeisenniere mit bosonderer Rüchsichtnahme auf das zustandekommen der Nierenverwachsung. Sitzungsberichte Wiener Akad. der Wissen. Math-Nature Kl. 60:572-588.

Furniss, H.D. (1922) Supernumerary ureters with extravesical openings. J. Urol. 8:495-505.

Gallard, -. (1852) Un cas de reunion des deux reins sur la ligne médiane, en evant des vertebras lombaires. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXVII(7):1.

Garat, J.M. and E. Martínez. (1984) Blind-ending branch of bifid ureter. Urol. Int. 39:116-120.

Garcia, C.J., Taylor, K.J.W. and R.M. Weiss. (1987) Congenital megacalyyces: Ultrasound appearance. J. Ultrasound Med. 6:163-165.

Gardini, - (1912) Absence unilatérale du rein. J. Urol. (Paris) 1:105.

Geisinger, J.F. Supernumerary kidney. J. Urol. 38:331-356.

Gelderen, C. van. (1927) Drei Fälle doppelseitiger, vollständig doppelter Ureteren (mit 4 Blasenostien). Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 263:89-98.

Gérard, G. (1905) Les anomalies congénitales du rein chez l'homme. Essai de classification d'apres 527 cas. J. Anat. Physiol. Norm. Pathol. Homme Animaux. 41:411:439.

Gérard, G. (1911) Les artères rénales (note statistique d'apres l'étude de 150 pairs de reins) J. Anat. Physiol., Paris. 47:531-534.

von Gierke, E. (1928) Abnormer Verlauf des rechten Uterers bei Entwicklunganomalie der unterern Hohlvene. Zeitschr. f. Urol. Chir. 25:279-285.

Gilman, H.B. (1927) A note on a rare congenital pelvic kedney. Anat. Rec. 36:149-154.

Gladstone, R.J. (1911) A case in which the right ureter passed behind the inferior vena cava: With a short note upon a case in which the left renal vein passed behind the abdominal aorta, and the bearing of these abnormalities on the development of the abdominal veins. J. Anat. Physiol. 45:225-231.

Gladstone, R.J. (1915) A case of congenital absence of the left kidney and ureter. J. Anat. Physiol. 69:418-428.

Glenn, J.F. (1959) Agenesis of the bladder. JAMA 169:2016-2018.

Glenn, J.F. (1959) Analysis of 51 patients with horseshoe kidney. N. Engl. J. Med. 261:684-687.

Goldberg, H. and H.A. Fowler. (1942) Pelvic single kidney: Report of an additional case. J. Urol. 47:440-443.

Goldman, R.L. and N.B. Friedman. (1968) Epididymal tubules in the dysplastic kidney. J. Urol. 99:148-153.

Goldstein, A.E. and B. Klotz. (1945) Ligation of a supernumerary ureter: Clinical and experimental study. Am. J. Surg. 70:13-13.

Goodhope, C.D. (1946) Pelvic single kidney: Report of a case. Urol. Cutan. Rev. 50:268-269.

Goodman, J.D., Norton, K.I., Carr, L. and Hsu-Chong Yeh. (1986) Crossed fused Renal ectopia: Sonographic diagnosis. urologic Radiology 8:13-16.

Goodwin, W.E., Burke, D.E. and W.H. Muller. (1957) Retrocaval ureter. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 104:337-345.

Gordon, H.L. and R. Kessler. Ectopic ureter entering the seminal vesicle associated with renal dysplasia. J. Urol. 108:389-391.

Gordon-Taylor, G. (1936) On horseshoes and on horseshoe kidney, concave downwards. Brit. J. Urol. 8:112-118.

Goyanna, R. and L.F. Greene. (1945) The pathologic and anomalous conditions of the renal pelvis and ureter. J. Urol. 54:1-9.

Graves, F.T. (1954) The anatomy of the intrarenal arteries and its application to segmental resection of the kidney. Br. J. Surg. 42:132-139.

Graves, R.C. and L.M. Davidoff (1922) Anomalous relationship of the right ureter to the inferior vena cava. J. Urol. 8:75-79.

Greisinger, J.F. (1937) Supernumerary kidney. J. Urol. 38:331-356.

Grim, K.B. (1940) Bilateral renal and ureteral agenesis. J. Urol. 44:397-400.

Gross, R.E. and T.C. Moore. (1950) Duplication of the urethra. Report of two cases and summary of the literature. Arch. Surg. 60:749-761.

Gruber, G.B. (1920) Entwicklungsstörungen der Nieren und Harnleiter. Münchener Med. Wochenschr. 67:1001.

Gruber, W. (1876) Tiefe Lage der linken Niere und Lage der congenital enorm vergrösserten rechten Niere in ihrem unteren Viertel in der Fovea fasciae iliacae der Fossa iliaca dextra. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin Med. 68:276-284.

Gruber, W. (1887) Durch rechtwinklige Vershmelzung der Nieren an deren unteren Enden entstandene zweischenklige Niere mit Lagerung in der rechten Hälfte der Bauchhöhle und im hinteren Abschnitte der rechten Fossa iliaca. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 107:489-492.

Gruenwald, P. and S.N. Surks. (1943) Pre-utereric vena cava and in embryological explanation. J. Urol. 49:195-201.

Gutierrez, J. and R.M. Nesbit. (1967) Ectopic prostate tissue in bladder. J. Urol. 98:474-478.

Gutierrez, R. (1931) The clinical management of horseshoe kidney. Am. J. Surg. 14:657-688.

Gutierrez, R. (1933) Surgical aspects of renal agenesis, with special reference to hypoplastic kidney, renal aplasia and congenital absence of one kidney. Arch. Surg. 27:686-735.

Gutierrez, R. (1936) Role of anomalies of kidney and ureter in causation of surgical conditions. JAMA 106:183-189.

Gutierrez, R. (1942) Operative technique for division of renal isthmus in horseshoe kidney. Am. J. Surg. 55:28-36.

Guizzetti, P. and F. Pariset (1911) Beiziehungen zwischen Missbildungen der Nieren und der Geschlechtsorgane. Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 204:372-392.

Guttman, P. (1883) Über zwei Fälle von congenitalem Mangel der rechten Niere, compliciert mit Anomalien der Genitalorgane. Arch Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 92:187-191.

Guyot, J. et G. Jeanneney. (1923) étude physio-pathologique d'un vein a uretère double. J. Urol. (Paris) 15:81-88.

Haber, M.H. (1973) Bifid ureter with blind-ending branch diagnosed by excretory urography: Report of a case. J. Urol. 110:38-39.

Haber, M.H. and D.J. Hogen. (1967) Bone in the renal capsule. J. Urol. 97:818-822.

Halasz, H. (1894) Niere mit doppeltem Ureter. Anat. Anz. 9:631-632.

Hamlin, D.J., Pettersson, H., Ramey, S.L. and F. Moazam. (1986) Magnetic resonance imaging of bicornuate uterus with unilateral hematometrosalpinx and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Urol. Radiol. 8:52-55.

Hanley, H.G. (1942-43) A horseshoe and a supernumerary kidney. A triple kidney with a horseshoe component. Brit. J. Surg. 30:165-168.

Harpster, C.M., Brown, T.H. and H.A. Delcher (1922) Abnormalities of the kidney with a review of the literature. J. Urol. 8:459-490.

Harrill, H.C. (1940) Retrocaval ureter. Report of a case with operative correction of the defect. J. Urol. 44:450-457.

Harris, A. (1937) Ureteral anomalies with special reference to partial duplication with one branch ending blindly. J. Urol. 38:442-454.

Hawas, N., Noah, M. and P.J. Pattel. (1987) Blind-ending bifid ureter-clinical significance? Analysis of 13 cases with review of the literature. Euro. Urol. 13:39-43.

Headings, D.M. and R.E. Palmer. (1946) Supernumerary kidney with ureter opening into vagina. Am. J. Surg. 71:370-373.

Heancy, J.A., Pfister, R.C. and E.M. Meares, Jr. (1987) Giant Cyst of the seminal vesicle with renal agenesis. Am. J. Roentgenol. 149:139-140.

Hellström, J. (1927) Zur Kenntnis der Doppelnieren. Z. Urol. Chir. 23:31-56.

Hellström, J. über die Varianten der Nierengefässe. Z. Urol. Chir. 24:253-272.

Helm, F. (1896) Zur Topographie der menschlichen Niere. Anat. Anz. 11:97-104.

Henriet, -. (1874) Anomalie des uretères et des bassinets. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLIX(5):428-429.

Hepburn, D. (1885) Floating kidney. J. Anat. Physiol. 19:178-185.

Herman, J.L. and G. Fetterolf. (1913) "Dumb-bell" kidney. Ann. Surg. 57:868-878.

Hernanz-Schulman, M., Genieser, N., Ambrosino, M. and M. Hanna. (1989) Bilateral duplex ectopic ureters terminating in the seminal vescles: Sonographic and CT diagnosis. Urol. Radiol. 11:49-52.

Higgins, C.C. (1928) Horseshoe kidney with report of eighteen cases. International. Clin. 4:198-206.

Hinman, Jr., F. Congenital bilateral absence of the kidneys: A critical review with the report of one additional case. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 71:101-105.

Hjort, E.F. (1946) A case of double bladder. Acta Chir. Scand. 94:262-270.

Hochstetter, F. (1888) Uber den Einfluss der Entwickelung der bleibenden Nieren auf die Lage des Urnierenabschnittes der hinteren Cardinalvenen. Anat. Anz. 3:938-940.

Honke, E.M. (1946) Ectopic ureter. J. Urol. 55:460-463.

Howarth, V.S. (1949-50) Solitary kidney. Report of three cases. Brit. J. Surg. 37:327-328.

Howden, R. (1887) Case of misplaced kidney, with undescended testicle and rudimentary vas deferens on the same side. J. Anat. Physiol. 21:551-557.

Huffman, L.F. (1924) Congenital displacements of the kidney. J. Urol. 12:363-377.

Huffman, L.F. (1924) Unilateral renal aplasia, ureter opening into vas. J. Urol. 12:379-382.

Huntington, G.S. (1908) The genetic interpretation and surgical significance of some variations of the genitourinary tract. Harvey Lect. 2:222-267.

Hüter, C. (1869) Grosses angeborenes Divertikel der Urethra mit klappenförmigem Verschluss der Urethra und Incontinentia urinae. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 46:32-36.

Irmisch, G.W. and E.N. Cook. (1946) Double and accessory urethra. Minnesota Med. 29:999-1002.

Isabella, V., Arabia, R., Marrota, E., Valentine, F. and F. Bianchi. (1987) Bifid ureter with blind-ending branch. Int. Urol. 19:65-69.

Iwanow, G. (1927) über die Lagebeziehungen der Nieren und Nebennieren beim Menschen. Anat. Anz. 64:163-173.

Jacobson, V.C. (1927) Postcaval ureter. Report of two cases in man. Arch. Pathol. 3:203-211.

Jan, H., Asztalos, B. and F. Pirkner. (1967) Urachusanomalien in Erwachsenenalter. Zentralblatt f. Chirurgie 92:819-823.

Jarman, W.D. (1938) Surgery of the horseshoe kidney with postaortic isthmus: Report of two cases of horseshoe kidney. J. Urol. 40:1-9.

Jewett, H.J. (1940) Stenosis of the ureteropelvic juncture: Congenital and acquired. J. Urol. 44:247- 258.

Johnson, F.P. (1930) Urethral anomalies. J. Urol. 23:693-699.

Josias, A. (1877) Absence congenitale du rein et de l'uretère du côté droit. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LII(4):323-325.

Josias, -. (1879) Absence congénitale du rein de l'uretère du côté droit. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LIV:763-764.

Judd, E.S. (1925) Partial resection of the kidney. Ann. Surg. 82:458-471.

Kahn, S.A. and R.F. Wagner. (1982) Polythelia and unilateral renal agenesis. Cutis 30:225-226.

Kalberg, W. (1932) Eine einseitige rechte verwachsene Niere. Anat. Anz. 74:117-123.

Kanter, S.A. and E.H. Smith. (1972) Right lower quadrant symptoms and non-functioning right kidney: Coincidental appendicitis and renal agenesis. J. Urol. 108:328-329.

Karltreu, A.R.B., von. (1898) Ein Fall von linksseitiger Doppelniere. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 152:545-550.

Keen, W.W. (1903) A note on the anatomy of the perirenal fatty tissue. Amer. Med. 5:171.

Kengyel, H. (1928) über eine eigenartige Ursache der Hydronephrose. (Ungewöhnlicher Verlauf der hinteren Hohlvene.) Ztschr. f. Urol. Chir. 25:417-423.

Killen, D.A., Scott, W.H. and R.K. Rhamy. (1968) Aneurysm and arterial occlusive disease of the abdominal aorta and its major branches associated with horseshoe kidney. Am. J. Surg. 116:920-924.

Kingsley, C.R. (1911) A case of congenital deformities (Patent ductus Botali; absence of left kidney and chronic peripheral edema). Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 22:56-57.

Kirby, Jr., E.W. and C.J. Reynolds. (1949) Diverticula of the female urethra: Report of four cases, one containing a calculus. J. Urol. 62:498-502.

Klän, R., Hirner, A., Fiedler, Q. and G. Offermann. (1988) Transplantation of a horseshoe kidney en bloc: Report of a case. J. Urol. 139:571-572.

Koenig, U.D. (1972) Besondere Fehbildungen bei Nebennieren. Anat. Anz. 132:303-309.

Kohler, H.H. (1940) Septal bladder. With multiple genito-urinary anomalies and uremia. J. Urol. 44:63-66.

Kolisko, F. (1909) Ein Fall abnormen Verlaufes des rechten Ureters. Anat. Anz. 34:520-524.

Kornfeld, W. (1926) Ueber einen Fall von einseitigen Nierenmangel bei einem menschlichen embryo aus dem 3. Embryonalmonate. Anat. Anz. 60:497-515.

Kossow, J. and P.A. Morales. (1973) Duplication of bladder and urethra and associated anomalies. Urol. 1:71-73.

Kozakewich, H.P.W. and R.L. Lebowitz. (1974) Congenital megacalyces. Ped. Radiol. 2:251-258.

Krauss, L.W. and R. Straus. (1935) Retroperitoneal cyst arising in persistent metanephros with congenital absence of right kidney and ureter. J. Urol. 34:97-105.

Kretschmer, H.L. (1933) Duplication of the ureters at their distal ends, one pair ending blindly. So-called diverticula of the ureters. J. Urol. 30:61-73.

Kretschmer, H.L. and H.L. Morris. (1923) Report of a case of true hour-glass bladder. J. Urol. 10:181- 183.

Kreutzmann, H.A.R. (1937) Unusual uretral anomaly. With a discussion of the embryology. J. Urol. 38:67-73.

Kron, S.D. and D.R. Meranze. (1949) Completely fused pelvis kidney. J. Urol. 62:278-285.

Lahmann, A.H., Kilkenny, G.S. and A.C. Mietus. (1941) Twin pregnancy in rudimentary horn of bicornate uterus associated with renal agenesis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 42:534-536.

Lala, -. (1855) Anomalie des reins. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXX(4):146-148.

Lamesch, A. (1982) Les uretères borgnes. A propos de 9 cas et revue de la littérature. Chir. Pediatr. 23:379-386.

Landouzy, -. (1870) Reins reunis. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLV(5):326-327.

Langreder, W. (1956) Die weibliche Urethra, funktionelle Anatomie, Pathologie und Therapie des Verschlussmechanismus. Zentralblatt Gynäkol. 78:561-609.

Latarjet, A. (1931) Testut's Traite d'Anatomie Humain, Tome V, G. Doin & Cie, Paris.

Lathem, J.E. and K.H. Smith. (1962) Wilms tumor in a horseshoe kidney: A surviving case. J. Urol. 88:25-28.

Lau, F.T. and R.B. Henline. (1931) Ureteral anomalies. Report of a case manifesting three ureters on one side with one ending blindly in an aplastic kidney and a bifid pelvis with a single ureter on the other side. JAMA 96:587-591.

Lawrence, T.W.P. (1931) Cases of anomalous kidney and ureter. J. Anat. Physiol. 31:559-606.

Lazarus, J.A. (1932) Horseshoe kidney. A report of five cases. J. Urol. 27:471-487.

Lemarchant, -. (1861) Example d'uretère double. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXXVI(3):113-115.

Lenaghan, D. (1962) Bifid ureters in children: An anatomical, physiological and clinical study. J. Urol. 87:808-817.

Leudet, E. (1856) Rein gauche placé au niveau de l'angle sacro-vertebral; anomalie des artères et veines rénales. Soc. Biol. Comptes Rendus des Séances et Mémoires 8:55.

Levi, -. (1863) Une reunion des deux reins places au-devant de la colonne vertébrale. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXXVIII(6):279-280.

Limkakeng, A.D. and A.B. Retik. (1972) Unilateral renal agenesis with hypoplastic ureter: Observations on the contralateral urinary tract and report of 4 cases. J. Urol. 108:149-152.

Lintgen, C. and P.A. Herbert. (1946) A clinicopathological study of 100 female urethras. J. Urol. 55:298-305.

Liouville, -. (1868) Anomalie des uretères: duplicité des deux côtés. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLIII(1):55.

Liouville, -. (1868) Duplicité des uretère du côté gauche. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLIII(2):149.

Lipshutz, B. and C. Hoffman. (1918) A contribution to the knowledge of fused kidneys. Ann. Surg. 68:39-52.

Lowman, R.M., Cooperman, L.R. and H.R. Hartmann. (1965) The normal anatomic variations of renal contour: Roentgen aspects of fetal lobulations. J. Urol. 93:649-654.

Lowsley, O.S. (1912) The development of the human prostate gland with reference to the development of other structures at the neck of the urinary bladder. Am. J. Anat. 13:299-349.

Lowsley, O.S. (1946) Postcaval ureter, with description of a new operation for its correction. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 82:549-556.

Lowsley, O.S. (1952) Surgery of the horseshoe kidney. J. Urol. 67:565-578.

Lowsley, O.S. and J.H. Menning. (1944) Pelvic single kidney: Report of a case. J. Urol. 51:117-127.

Lund, A.J. (1949) Uncrossed double ureter with rare intervesical orifice relationship: Case report, with review of literature. J. Urol. 62:22-29.

Lyon, Jr., M.W. (1917) An hereditary case of congenital absence of one kidney. Anat. Rec. 13:303- 304.

MacLean, J.T. (1945) Congenital valve in the upper ureter. J. Urol. 54:374-380.

MacLean, J.T. (1945) Unilateral duplication of the ureter and renal pelvis. J. Urol. 54:381-384.

Magnus, H. (1869) über eine Anomalie der mannlichen Harnröhre. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 47:307-308.

Magoun, J.A.H. (1932) Renal anomalies. J. Urol. 27:435-469.

Mahon, R.B. (1889) Abnormal arrangement of the kidney and its vessels. J. Anat. Physiol. 23:339-340.

Majeski, J.A., Alexander, J.W., First, R., Munda, R. and J.P. Fidler. (1979) Transplantation of a horseshoe kidney. JAMA 242:1006.

Marchand, -. (1883) Uber accessorische Nebennieren im Ligamentum latum. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 92:11-19.

Marion, G. (1912) Un cas d'urètre double chez l'homme. J. Urol. (Paris) 1:235-236.

Mascarel, - . (1840) Cas d'absence complète du rein gauche. Bull. et Mém. de la Soc. Anatomique de Paris. 15:365.

Mathé, C.P. (1928) The role of aberrant vessels in the production of hydronephrosis. J. Urol. 19:211.

Mayers, M.M. (1936) Crossed renal ectopia. J. Urol. 36:111-122.

Mays, H.B. (1946) Pelvic single kidney: Report of a case. J. Urol. 56:619-624.

McCrea, L.E. (1942) Congenital solitary pelvic kidney. J. Urol. 48:58-68.

McKenna, C.M. and O.F. Kampmeier. (1934) A consideration of the development of polycystic kidney. J. Urol. 3 2:37-43.

McNally, A. (1932) Unilateral renal agenesis: Case report with resume of nineteen additional cases from the literature. J. Urol. 28:289-296.

Meek, J.R. and G.H. Wadsworth. (1940) A case of horseshoe kidney lying between the great vessels. J. Urol. 43:448-451.

Mehl, R.L. (1969) Retro-iliac artery ureter. J. Urol. 102:27-29.

Mehta, A.R., Rajpal, R.M. and D.J. Jussawalla. (1968) Suprarenal ligation of the inferior vena cava with a solitary horseshoe kidney. Am J. Surg. 116:925-928.

Menezes de Goes, G., de Campos, G., Freire, M., Borelli, A., Pompeo, C.L. and E.R. Wroclawski. (1981) Transplantation of a horseshoe kidney. J. Urol. 126:537-538.

Menzies, W.F. (1887) Two cases of single kidney. J. Anat. Physiol. 21:510.

Merimsky, E. and M. Firstater, (1978) Ectopic thoracic kidney. Brit. J. Urol. 50:282.

Messing, A. and M.F. Ashley-Montagu. (1932) A note on a case of true congenital solitary kidney with double postrenal inferior vena cava. Anat. Rec. 53:173-175.

Meunier, -. (1862) Rein unique: deux uretéres. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXXVII(3):400-401.

Milliser, R.V., Greenberg, S.R. and B.H. Neiman. (1969) Heterotopic renal tissue in the human adrenal gland. J. Urol. 102:280-284.

Milliser, R.V., Greenberg, S.R. and J.B. Neiman, (1972) Heterotopic renal tissue in the human heart. J. Urol. 108:21-24.

Mills, W.M. (1912) Two cases of supernumerary kidney. J. Anat. Physiol. 46:313-318.

Minken, S.L. and C.G. Rob. (1967) Abdominal aneurysm and horseshoe kidney: a case report and collective review. Surgery 61:719-722.

Mitchell, G.A.G. (1950) The renal fascia. Brit. J. Surg. 37:257-266.

Moëll, H. (1956) Size of normal kidneys. Acta Radiol. 46:640-645.

Monie, I.W. (1949) Double ureter in two human embryos. Anat. Rec. 103:195-204.

Montiero, H., Rodrigues, A. and O. Ribeiro. (1928) Quelques cas de variations de l'appareil urinaire supérieur. Ann. Anat. Pathol. 5:222-229.

Moody, R.O. and R.G. van Nuys. (1940) The position and mobility of the kidneys in healthy young men and women. Anat. Rec. 76:111-133.

Moore, F.C. (1899) Unilateral renal aplasia: "Unsymmetrical kidney". J. Anat. Physiol. 33:400-412.

Morgan, E.K. and C.M. Stone (1937) Bilateral renal ectopia. J. Urol. 38:427-429.

Morris, D.G. (1959) Solitary discoid kidney opening into the ureter. Report of a case and comments on the embryology. Brit. J. Surg. --: 244-245.

Muchat, M. and L. Edeiken. (1940)) Renal displacement. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 71:146-150.

Muraro, G.B., Pecori, M., Giusti, G. and G.C. Masini. (1985) Blind-ending branch of bifid ureter: Report of seven cases. Urol. Radiol. 7:12-15.

Nation, E.F. (1944) Duplication of the kidney and ureter: A statistical study of 230 cases. J. Urol. 51:465-465.

Nation, E.F. (1944) Renal agenesis: A study of 30 cases. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet. 79:175-181.

Nation, E.F. (1945) Horseshoe kidney, a study of thirty-two autopsy and nine surgical cases. J. Urol. 53:762-768.

Nation, E.F. (1945) Renal ectopia: A study of twent-three cases. Am. J. Surg., 68:67-72.

Nelson, R.P. and J.M. Palmer. (1975) Use of a horseshoe kidney in renal transplantation: technical aspects. Urology 6:357-359.

Newman, H. and T. Ditchek. (1969) Triplication of the ureter. J. Urol. 101:692-693.

Ney, C. and R.M. Freidenberg. (1968) Radiographic findings in anomalies of the urachus. J. Urol. 99:288-291.

Nichols, B.H. and J.T. Marr. (1945) Congenital solitary pelvic ectopic kidney, with a report of a case. Radiology 44:255-258.

Obici, A. (1896) Les anomalies d'embonchure des Uretères. Arch. Ital. Biol. 26:486-488.

Oddono, E. (1899) Sur un rein en ectopie pelvienne congénitale et sur la segmentation du rein. Arch. Ital. Biol. 32:468.

Ogden, H.D. and E. Maltry. (1940) Pelvic single kidney. Report of an additional case. J. Urol. 44:13-18.

Ognew, B.W. (1930) Die Hufeisenniere des Menschen im Zusammenhang mit Varianten im Bau anderer Organe. Anat. Anz. 69:330-341.

O'Heeron, M.K. and F.A. Webster. (1946) Report of two cases of double urethra in the male. J. Urol. 55:391-396.

Oppenheimer, G.D. (1934) Polycystic disease of the kidney. Ann. Surg. 100:1136-1158.

Orr, L.M., Hayward, J.C. and A.F. Turner. (1948) Failure of urogenital union. J. Urol. 60:147-152.

Otis, F.N. (1876) Remarks on the urethral calibre and its proportionale relation to the size of the penis. Arch. Dermatol. 2:210-212.

Page, F. (1888) Report of a case where, from congenital deformity, a man aged fifty-four years has passed feces and urine by his urethra all his life. Brit. Med. J. 2:875-876.

Paiseccki, Z., Jugowski, F. and J. Piotrowski. (1969) Forms of renal pelvises in man in casts and radiograms. Folia Morph. (Warsaw) 28:161-171.

Pallin, G. (1917) Uretermündungsanomalien Embryologische Voraussettzungen und klinische Bedeutung. Nord. Med. Arkiv. 50:(Haft. 2, Nr 3) 1-27.

Palmer, B.M. (1933) Congenital pelvic kidney. Am. J. Surg. 22:220-222.

Pan, N. (1924) Misplaced kidney. J. Anat. 58:271-272.

Parmentier, -. (1851) Rein unique, deux capsules surrénales. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXVI(8):248.

Pattern, B.M. (1951) The possible embryological mechanisms involved in the genesis of exstrophy of the bladder and epispadias. Anat. Rec. 109:334-335.

Pedroso, G. "Rein en Galette" or shield-shaped kidney. J. Urol. 24:389-392.

Périer, -. (1862) D'adhesion des deux reins. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XXVII(11):391-392.

Perrin, W.S. (1927) Ectopic kidney with triple ureter, removed from a man, aged 41. Proc. R. Soc. Med. (Sect. Urol.) 20 (Part 3): 1806-1807.

Persky, L., Izant, R. and R. Bolande. (1967) Renal dysplasia. J. Urol. 98:431-435.

Peterson, Jr., C. and M.L. Silbiger. (1968) Five ureters: A case report. J. Urol. 100:160-162.

Picard, -. (1872) Rein unique. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLVII(8):388.

Pick, J.W. and B.J. Anson. (1940) Retrocaval ureter: Report of a case, with a discussion of its clinical significance. J. Urol. 43:672-685.

Pierson, L.E. (1932) Unilateral fused kidney. J. Urol. 28:217-231.

Pitzorno, M. (1896) Rare anomalie rénal gauche. Arch. Ital. Biol. 26:160.

Pohlman, A. (1905) Abnormalities in the form of the kidney and ureter dependent on the development of the renal bud. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 16:51-60.

Pohlman, A.G. (1904) Concerning the embryology of kidney anomalies. Am. Med. 7:987-990.

Polk, W.M. (1883) Case of extripation of a displaced kidney. N.Y. Med. J. 37:171-178.

Presman, D. (1961) Congenital valves of the posterior urethra. J. Urol. 86:602-611.

Priesel, A. (1932) Angeborenes Fehlen beider Samenleiter bei normalen Harnwegen. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 286:21-41.

Priman, J. (1924) Uretère double et loi de Weigert-Meyer. Soc. Biol. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances et Mémoires. 90:1125.

Priman, J. (1929) A consideration of normal and abnormal positions of the hilum of the kidney. Anat. Rec. 42:355-363.

Quinn, W.P. (1940) A case of bilateral renal ectopy. J. Urol. 44:10-12.

Radasch, H.E. (1908( Congenital unilateral absence of the urogenital system and its relation to the development of the Wolffian and Mullerian ducts. Am. J. of the Med. Sci. 136:111.

Randall, A. and E.W. Campbell. (1935) Anomalous relationship of the right ureter to the vena cava. J. Urol. 34:565-583.

Reid, D.G. (1917) Bilateral duplication of the ureter. J. Anat. 51:30-45.

Reverdin, -. (1869) Anomalie de l'urèthre dans sa portion prostatique. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLIV(5):240.

Reverdin, -. (1870) Absence du rein, de l'ureterie, du canal déférent et de la vésicule séminale du côté gauche; existence des deux testicles dans la boures. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLV(5):325-326.

Richmond, W.S. (1885) Abnormal ureters. J. Anat. Physiol. 19:120.

Ringer, Jr.,. M.G. and S.M. MacFarlan. (1964) Complete triplication of the ureter. A case report. J. Urol. 92:429-430.

Robinson, B. (1909) The blood vessels in fused (horseshoe kidney: Based on a study of sixty specimens and illustrations). Lancet Clinic 102:141-148.

Robson, M.C. and E.B. Ruth. (1962) Bilocular bladder: An anatomical study of a case; with considerations of urinary tract anomaloies. Anat. Rec. 142:62-68.

Rotter, H. (1935) Dorsaler Ureterverlauf bie Abnormalitaten der unteren Hohlvene. Zeitschr. f. Anat. u. Entwicklungsgesch. 104:456-474.

Rowland, Jr., H.S., Bunts, R.C. and J.H. Iwano. (1960) Operative correction of retrocaval ureter: A report of four cases and review of literature. J. Urol. 83:820-833.

Rubascheva, A. (1930) Zur Morphologie der Hufeisenniere. Ztschr. Urol. Chir. 30:253-255.

Saccone, A. and H.B. Hendler. (1934) Supernumerary kidney: Report of a case and a review of the literature. J. Urol. 31:711-720.

Sandifort, Ed. (1777) Renis pelvis duplex, p. 129. Observationes Anatomico-Pathologicae, Apud P.v.d. Eyk et D. Vygh, Leiden.

Sandifort, Ed. (1777) Ureteres duo ex rene prodeuntes, p. 129. Observationes Anatomico-Pathologicae, Apud P.v.d. Eyk et D. Vygh, Leiden.

Schacht, F.W. and J.L. Crenshaw. (1930) Vesical diverticulum in the female. J. Urol. 24:393-410.

Schnitzer, B. (1965) Ectopic ureteral opening into seminal vesicle: Report of four cases. J. Urol. 93:576-581.

Schreiber, S.L. and J.K. Smith. (1946) Absence of the vagina, uterus, right kidney and ureter and ectopic (pelvic) right kidney. Am. J. Surg. 71:681-688.

Schwalbe, E. (1896) Mittheillung über zwei Fälle von congenitaler Nirenverlagerung. Arch. f. Pathol. Anat. u. Physiol. u. f. Klin. Med. 146:414-423.

Schwartz, B.B. and R.E. Mindelzum. (1972) Ectopic (intrapelvic) renal papilla. J. Urol. 108:28-29.

Segura, J.W., Kelalis, P.P. and E.C. Burke. (1972) Horseshoe kidney in children. J.Urol. 108:333-336.

Serbeny, A. (1927) Ein Fall von Hufeisenniere mit drei getrennt in die Blase mündenden Ureteren. Anat. Anz. 63:131-138.

Shih, H.E. (1937) Postcaval ureter. J. Urol. 38:61-66.

Shore, L.R. (1930) A report on a specimen of fused pelvic kidney found in a Bantu native of South Africa. J. Anat. 64:344-352.

Shumacker, Jr., H.B. (1938) Congenital anomalies of the genitalia associated with unilateral renal agenesis: With particular reference to true unicorniculate uterus; report of cases and review of the literature. Arch. Surg. 37:586-602.

Simon, H.E. and N.A. Brandeberry. (1946) Anomalies of the urachus: Persistent fetal bladder. J. Urol. 55:401-408.

Smith, E.C. and L.A.A. Orkin. (1967) A clinical and statistical study of 471 congenital anomalies of kidney and ureter. J. Urol. 53:11-26.

Smith, Irvine. (1946) Triplicate Ureter. The British Journal of Surgery 34:182-185.

Smith, I. (1946-47) Triplicate ureter. Brit. J. Surg. 34:182-185.

Smith, J.J. (1950) Bilateral ureteral and renal agenesis. Am. I Surg. 80:73-75.

Smith, P.G., McKim, G.F. and T.W. Rush. (1936) Nephroprexy for disabilities due to abnormal renal mobility. Ann. Surg. 103:924-934.

Smith, S. and B. Boulgakow. (1925) Two cases of misplaced fixed kidneys. J Anat. 59:188-191.

Solomon, A.A., Rosenthal, I. and M.H. Linker. (1950) Double penis associated with supernumerary kidney. J. Urol. 64:705-709.

Soloway, H.M. (1939) Bilateral and Unilateral renal agenesis. Ann. Surg. 109:267-273.

Spillane, R.J. and G.C. Prather. (1949) High renal ectopy: A case report. J.Urol. 62:441-445.

Srinivasan, R. and G.C. Rhodes. (1982) Renal ectopia. Anat. Clin. 4:109-113.

St. Martin, E.C., O'Brien, H.A. and J.D. Mitchell. (1951) Double kidney: Reversal of the Weigert-R. Meyer law: a case report. J. Urol. 66:486-488.

Stephens, F.D. (1958) Anatomical vagaries of double ureters. Aust. N.Z. J. Surg. 38:27-33.

Stevens, A.R. (1937) Pelvic single kidneys. J. Urol. 37:610-618.

Stewart, M.J. and S.D. Lodge. (1923-24) On unilateral fused kidney and allied renal malformation. Brit. J. Surg. 11:27-37.

Sturrock, R.R. (1980) Two cases of unusually positioned horseshoe kidneys. Anat. Clin. 2:123-125.

Swenson, 0. , MacHahon, H.E., Jaques, W.E. and J.S. Campbell. (1952) A new concept of the etiology of megaloureters. New England J. Med. 246:41-46.

Swenson, 0. and C.T. Oeconomopoulos. (1961) Double lower genitourinary systems in a child. J. Urol. 85:540-542.

Swick, M.A. (1937-38) A quadruple kidney with a horseshoe component demonstrated with the aid of excretion urography. J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 4:7-11.

Talner, L.B. and R.F. Gittes. (1972) Megacalyces. Clin. Radiol. 23:355-361.

Tandler, J. and J. Halban. (1902) Die topographie des weibleichen Ureters bei normalen und abnormalen Verhalmussen. Monatsschrift. Geburtsh. u. Gynäk. 15:615-635.

Templeton, A.W. I.W. Thompson. (1968) Aortographic differentiation of congenital and acquired small kidneys. Arch. Surg. 97:114-117.

Theilmann, C.H. (1835) Drei Nieren im Leichname eines Menschen. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 5:511-515.

Thibierge, G. (1882) Rein unique. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LVII(1):42-43.

Thompson, D.P. and H.B. Lynn (1963) Genital anomalies associated with solitary kidney. Mayo Clin. Proc. 41:422-426.

Thompson, G.J. and J.M. Pace. (193 7) Ectopic Kidney: A review of 97 cases. Surg., Gynecol. Obstet. 64:935-943.

Thorens, -. (1871) Rein unique par fusion: fer à chaval. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris XLVI(7,8):413.

Tonkoff, W. (1902) Beitrag zu den Nierenanomalien. Int. Monatsschr. Anat. Physiol. 20:449-461.

Trotter, M. and J.C. Finerty. (1948) An anomalous urinary bladder. Anat. Anz. 100:259-269.

Tweedie, H.C. (1894) Case of a single unilateral kidney. J. Anat. Physiol. 28:340-341.

Tyson, E. (1678) Anatomical observations of an abcess in the liver; a great number of stones in the gall-bag and bilous vessels; a strange conjunction of both kidneys and a great dilitation of the vena cava. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 12:1035-1039.

Uhlír, K. (1968) Rare malformations of the bladder. J. Urol. 99:53-58.

Valenti, G. (1897) Sur un cas d'ectopie rénale congenitale. Arch. Ital. Biol. 28:171-172.

Vance, B.M. (1914) A case of congenital malformation of the ureters and blood vessels of kidneys. Proceed. New York Proc. Soc. 14:12-17.

Variot, -. (1880) Cas de soudure des deux reins sur la ligne médiane. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LV(5):362.

Varsano, I.B., Jaber, L., Garty, B., Mukamel, M.M. and M. Grünebaum. (1984) Urinary tract abnormalities in children with supernumerary nipples. Pediatrics. 73:103-105.

Venzmer, G. (1921) über den angeborenen Mangel einer niere. Zeitschr. f. Urol. Chirurg. 6:162-174.

Voelcker, A. (1896) Uterus unicornis with congenital malposition of the right kidney. Trans. Path. Soc. Lond. 47:173.

Vuorinen, P. (1960) Single pelvic kidney. Brit. J. Radiol. 33:129-130.

Wakely, C.P.G. (1915) A case of duplication of the ureters. J. Anat. Physiol. 49:148-154.

Washburn, F.H. (1930) Bilateral congenital polycystic kidney: autopsy. J. Urol. 24:199-204.

Weinstock, H.L. and S. Keesal. (1943) Solitary kidney with tuberculosis. Case report with a review of the literature. Urol. Cutan. Rev. 47:655-657.

Weiss, R.M., Maloney, Jr., P.K. and G.A. Beland. (1965) Crossed renal ectopia of the solitary kidney. J. Urol. 94:320-322.

Weller, C.V. (1925) Heterotopia of adrenal in liver and kidney. Am. J. of the Med. Science 169:712.

Weigert, C. (1877) über einige Bildungsfehler der Ureteren. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 70:490-501.

Wendensky, K. (1912) A rare anomaly of the right kidney and ureter. Am. J. Urol. 8:25-26.

Wershub, L.P. (1930) Interpretation of double ureters. Am. J. Surg. 10:122-129.

Weyrauch, Jr., H.M. Anomalies of renal rotation. Surg,. Gynecol. Obstet. 6:183-199.

Wilhelmj, C.M. (1920) A case of cross displacement of the left kidney with fusion. Anat. Rec. 18:167-177.

Wilhelmj, C.M. (1920) A case of double ureter in man with failure of development of the kidney about the aberrant ureter. Anat. Rec. 18:179-192.

William,s D.I. and A.B. Retik. (1969) Congenital valves and diverticula of the anterior urethra. Brit. J. Urol. 41:228-234.

Williams, J.L. and W.F. Goodwin. (1965) Congenital multiple diverticula of the ureter. Brit. J. Urol. 37:299-301

Wimmer, H. (1910) Doppelbildungen an den Nieren und ein Versuch ihrer entwicklungsgeschichtlichen Deutung. Arch. Pathol. Anat. Physiol. Klin. Med. 200:487-522.

Wins, -. (1879) Ectopic rénale gauche congénitale. Bulletins et Mem. de la Société Anatomique de Paris LIV(7):567-569.

Wölfler, A. (1890) Zur chirurgischen Anatomie und Physiologie des Kropfes und Nebenkropfes. Arch. Klin. Chir. 40:169-243.

Woodruff, S.R. (1941) Complete unilateral triplication of the ureter and renal pelvis. J. Urol. 46:376- 379.

Wutz, P. (1883) über Urachus und Urachuscysten. Arch. f. Path. Anat. u. Physiol. u. f. Klin. Med. 92:387-423.

Wwedensky, -. (1912) Un cas rare d'anomalie du rein droit et des uretères. J. Urol. (Paris) 1:106.

Zellermayer, J. and H.E. Carlson. (1944) Congenital hour-glass bladder. J. Urol. 51:24-30.

Zucker, M.O. (1946) Congenital solitary pelvic kidney J. Urol. 55:256-269.

Section Top | Title Page
Home | Search | About Us | FAQ | Reviews | Contact Us

Anatomy Atlases is curated by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. [Google+ Profile] and Ronald A. Bergman, Ph.D.

Please send us comments by filling out our Comment Form.

All contents copyright 1995-2014 the Author(s) and Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. All rights reserved.

"Anatomy Atlases", the Anatomy Atlases logo, and "A digital library of anatomy information" are all Trademarks of Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D.

Anatomy Atlases is funded in whole by Michael P. D'Alessandro, M.D. Advertising is not accepted.

Your personal information remains confidential and is not sold, leased, or given to any third party be they reliable or not.

The information contained in Anatomy Atlases is not a substitute for the medical care and advice of your physician. There may be variations in treatment that your physician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.

URL: http://www.anatomyatlases.org/

This website is certified by Health On the Net Foundation. Click to verify. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information:
verify here.